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PS CH 15/16

DHS PS Chapter 15/16 Review

When all the atoms in a substance are alike, the substance is an? element
A substance with two or more elements combined in a fixed proportion it is called a ________? compound
A mixture of different and easily distinguishable materials is what type of mixture? heterogeneous mixture
A mixture that contains two or more gaseous, liquid, or solid substances blended evenly and is also called a solution is what type of mixture? homogeneous mixture
A heterogeneous mixture with larger particles that never settle is called? colloid
A heterogeneous mixture containing a liquid in which visible particles settle is called a? suspension
A substance is _______? either an element or a compound
The silvery liquid used in thermometers, called mercury, is an? element
When a substance has all the exact combinations of elements are always the same it is called a? compound
A material made up of two or more substances that can be separated by physical means is called a? mixture
Classify an unopened soft drink. homogeneous mixture or solution
Classify milk. heterogeneous mixture or colloid
Classify salt water. homogeneous mixture or solution
Classify water. pure substance or compound
A characteristic of a material which can be observed without changing the identity of the substances in the material is called a? physical property
Color, shape, size, melting point, and boiling point are all examples of? physical properties
A physical description of a substance is called? appearance
How a substance acts: magnetism, viscosity, ductility is called? behavior
A change in a substance's size, shape, or state of matter are called? physical changes
When a substance undergoes a physical change it does not change its? identity
A process for separating a mixture by evaporating a liquid and condensing its vapor is called? distillation
Characterisitice of a substance indicating that it can change chemically is called a? chemical property
Examples of chemical properties are? flammability, light sensitivity of a substance
When one substance changes to another substance what has occurred? a chemical change
Some chemical changes are indicated by? temperature change, smell, or bubble formation
How can chemical changes be used? to separate elements from ore or to clean tarnished jewelry.
Mass of all substances present before a chemical change equals the mass of all substances after the change is called? Law of Conservation of Mass
What type of change is distillation? Physical, because identities of substances do not change
An example of physical weathering is? the formation of a canyon by a flowing stream
a change in size, shape, or state of matter is what type of change? physical
The law of conservation of mass states that? the mass of all substances present before a change equals the mass of all the substances remaining after the change
A characteristic of a substances that indicates whether it can undergo a certain chemical change is what type of property? chemical property
An example of a physical change is? An iron turning white when it is heated
An example of a chemical change is? burning of a log
An example of a physical property is? freezing point
A characteristic of a material that can be observed without changing the identity of the material is a? physical property
A change of one substance to another is called a? chemical change
What are the states of matter? solid, liquid, gas
What explains how particles in matter behvave? kinetic theory
All matter is composed of small _______? particles
Particles are in constant, random ______? motion
The total energy of a material's particles is called? thermal energy
What is the temperature of a substance, or how fast the particles are moving called? average kinetic energy
The lower the the temperature, ______? the slower the particle motion
In what state of matter the particles are closely packed together in a specific type of geometric arrangement? solid
In what state of matter does a solid begin to liquefy at the melting point as the particles gain enough energy to overcome their ordered arrangement? liquid
Energy that is required to reach the melting point is called? heat of fusion
In state state of matter do the particles have more space between them allowing them to flow and take the shape of their container? liquid
In what state of matter do the liquid particles have enough energy to escape the attractive forces of the other particles in the liquid? gas
What is the energy required for a liquid to change to a gas? heat of vaporization
When the pressure of the liquid's vapor is equal to the pressure of the atmosphere, and that liquid becomes a gas it is at the? boiling point
When gas particles spread evenly throughout their container this process is called? diffusion
As a solid melts and a liquid vaporizes, the temperature remains constant it is called the? heating curve of a liquid
The state of matter consisting of high-temperature gas with balanced positively and negatively charged particles is called? plasma
The increase in the size of a substance when the temperature increases is called? thermal expansion
When the temperature decreases, the size of a substance will ______? decrease
Expansion and contraction occur in _______? all three phases
What lacks the tightly ordered structure found in crystals? amorphous solids
How are temperature and kinetic energy related? temperature means the average kinetic energy of a substance, or how fast the paricles are moving.
Atoms in a solid material are arranged in a geometric pattern called a? crystal lattice
What are the states of matter? solid, liquid, gas, and plasma
The _________ of a substance is the temperature at which a solid begins to liquefy. meling point
How would you best describe the particles in a solid? particles that are tightly packed together
The amount of energy needed to change a substance from a solid phase to a liquid phase is? heat of fusion
When the temperature of a substance is lowered, its particles? vibrate more slowly
What is the energy an object has due to its motion? kinetic energy
Why can people on one side of a room smell the sent of an air freshener sprayed on the opposite side? The molecules of an air freshener have diffused
A material made up of two or more substances that can be easily separated by physical methods is called a? mixture
A substance in which the atoms of two or more elements are combined in a fixed proportion are called a? compound
An element used to reduce radiation exposure while taking X rays? lead
A type of matter with fixed composition, such as an element or compound? substance
A mixture where the particles are so small they cannot be seen with a microscope, and will not settle to the bottom of the mixture? solution
A mixture that is homogeneous when the can that holds it is closed, and a heterogeneous mixture of gas and a solution when the can is opened? soft drink
A type of mixture that contains particles blended evenly throughout, so you cannot see more than one part? homogeneous
A very strong, lightweight metal, used in body implants is? titanium
A greenish-yellow poisonous gas that can react to produce table salt is? chlorine
A silvery metal that can react to produce table salt is? sodium
Granite, concrete, and soup mixes are examples of this type of mixture where you can clearly see different materials? heterogeneous
What is the element with the highest melting point; soft enough to draw into a light bulb filament, or be combined with steel to be extremely durable? tungsten
How can the Tyndall effect help you tell the difference between a solution and a colloid? A light beam is invisible when shone through a solution. When a light beam is shone through a colloid, the light scatters and you see the beam
What is the difference between a physical change and a chemical change? A physical change does NOT change the composition of a material, a chemical change does
What are the 3 assumptions of kinetic theory? 1). all matter is composed of small particles 2). these particles are in constant random motion 3). these particles are colliding with each other and the walls of their container
The total energy of materials, particles is called? thermal energy
What is known as the energy of motion? kinetic energy
What is energy due to position or bonding called? potential energy
What is measured by temperature, and the average movements of molecules called? average kinetic energy
When molecules are packed tightly together what state of matter is it in? solid
When bonds of a solid are broken it is known as? melting point
When energy is required to melt it is known as? heat of fusion
Which state of matter are molecules slipping/sliding past each other? liquid
Which state of matter do molelcules take the shape and volume of their container? gas
Vaporization that occurs at the surface is known as? evaporation
What is the point where pressure of a vapor is equal to the surface? boiling point
The amount of energy required for a liquid to become a gas is known as? heat of vaporization
The spreading out of particles is called? diffusion
What is the state of matter that s positively and negatively charged? plasma
The increase of size due to temperature is known as? thermal expansion
________ occurs due to a strong attraction of its polar molecules? Water's Strange Expansion
What is change over a temperature range called? Melting Amorphous Solids
Examples of physical change are? boiling water, burting of a balloon, crumpling a piece of paper, sawing wood, crushing a can
Fog is an example of a? colloid
When a log burns in a fire, _________? a new substance is formed
What is another name for a homogeneous mixture? solution
When two or more substances are combined so each substance can be separated by physical means, the result is called a? mixture
The scattering of light by colloids is called? the Tyndall effect
Smoke is an example of a? colloid
The color of ink is what type of property? physical property
When gasoline is burned in an engine, _____? new substances are formed
A substance that is made up of only one kind of atom is an? element
If an unknown substance CANNOT be broken down into simpler substances, it is? an element, made of one kind of atom
If a material contatins 2-3 elements joined in a fixed proportion, it is an? compound
Water is a compound because? It cannot be broken down into simpler substances and it always has two hydrogen atoms for each oxygen atoms
What are the characteristics of a mixture? it is made of 2 or more substances that can be seperated by physical means
A mixture that appears to contain only one substance is a? homogeneous mixture
A mixture can be classified as a solution, suspension, or colloid based on? the size of its largest particles
Filtration can be used to separate mixtures based on? the size of their particles
What method can be used to separate parts of a liquid mixture when the entire mixtrue can pass through a filter? distillation
When a physical change in a sample occurs, what does NOT change? composition
A characteristic of a homogenous mixture is? a mixture in which two or more substances are evenly distributed
Process such as dissolving, melting, freezing, and evaporating can affect the appearance of a substance but the identity of the substance remains the same. these processes are called? physical changes
Most metallic elements, such as copper and iron, have high melting points. This is a useful property because? it enables people to use pots and pans made of metal to cook food
When an object changes from a solid to a liquid, energy is? required
Created by: basmith

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