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DHS PS CH 20 Review

QuestionAnswer
What is composed of symbols and subscripts indicating the number of atoms of an element in a compound? chemical formula
Atoms will form compounds when the compound is more _______ than separate atoms? stable
Why are noble gases more chemically stable than other elements? because they have a complete outer energy level
What is the force that holds atoms together in a compound? chemical bond
When a substance formed from two or more elements in which the exact combination and proportion of elements is always the same it is called? a compound
What tells what elements a compound contains and the exact number of the atoms of each element in a unit? chemical formula
The green coating on the Statue of Liberty and some old pennies is a result of? a chemical change called copper sulfate
What happens to elements' individual properties when they combine to form compounds? compounds have properties that are not anything like those of individual elements
What does subscript mean? written below
What does a subscript indicate? how many atoms of that element are in a unit of the compound
How do atoms form compounds? The electric forces between oppositely charged electrons and protons or nucleus hold compounds and molecules together and thus are the forces that cause compounds to form.
Why do noble gases rarely form compounds? becasue they each have a complete outer energy level already
When is an atom chemically stable? when its outer energy level is complete
Atoms with partially stable outer energy levels have 3 options to obtain a stable outer energy level, what are they? they can lose, gain, or share electrons
What happens to the inner energy level when outer electrons are removed? a complete inner energy level is revealed
When an element combines with another element, its indvidual properties? are given up and new properties are formed
What holds compounds together? attractive force between electrons and the nucleus
When an atom's outer energy levels are not filled completely, the atom? can gain, lose, or share electrons
What is the maximum number of electrons that Hydrogen and Helium can hold in their outer energy levels? 2
A compound is? a combination of two or more elements
Chemical compounds are? more stable than their individual elements
The smallest piece of matter that retains the property of the element is called a? atom
An atom that has lost or gained electrons is called an? ion
The force of attraction between the opposite charges of the ions in an ionic compound is called an? ionic bond
An attraction between atoms when they share electrons is called a? covalent bond
A neutral particle that forms as a result of electron sharing is called a? molecule
An overall neutral molecule that has a slightly positive and negative is called a? polar molcule
A molecule in which electrons are shared equally in bonds is called a? nonpolar molecule
Atoms lose or gain electrons to meet what standard? a stable energy level
What holds compounds together? the electric force between oppositely charged particles such as ions
Some of the most common compounds are made by the loss and gain of just ____ electrons? 1
What does superscript mean? written above
What is indicated in the superscript position? it indicates the atom's charge
When an atom loses an electron, what charge does it become? 1+
When an atom gains an electron, what charge does it become? 1-
What is the resulting charge on the compound fomred between two charged ions? a neutral compound
What happens in an ionic bond? a transfer of electrons takes place
Ionic bonds usually are formed by bonding between? metals and nonmetals
What are 2 properties of ionic compounds? they often form crystalline solids with high melting points, and conduct electricity and heat well
The result of an ionic bond is a? compound
The result of a covalent bond is a? molecule
How many electrons are shared in a single covalent bond? 2 or 1 pair
How many pairs of electrons are shared in a double bond? 2 pair
How many pairs of electrons are shared in a triple bond? 3 pair
What does the term polar mean? have opposite ends
Compare and contrast polar and nonpolar molecules: they are both the result of covalent bonds. Polar molecules have slightly oppositely charged ends wile nonpolar molecules do not.
NaCl is the chemical formula for what? sodium chloride
What do both polar and nonpolar molecules have in common? covalent bonds
In a covalent bond, electrons are? shared
What kind of a charge does an ionic compound carry? neutral
Francium, which is in the same chemical family as sodium, will carry what type of charge? positive
The atom that contains the fewest electrons is? hydrogen
The iodine ion carries what type of charge? 1- charge
In sodium chloride, which atom loses an electron? sodium
When elements form bonds, it changes their? chemical and physical properties
What is an anion? a negatively charged ion
What is a cation? a positvely charged ion
What is a binary compound? a compound composed of two elements
What is an oxidation number? a number that tells you how many electrons an a tom has lost, gained, or shared to become stable.
What is a polyatomic ion? a positively or negatively charged, covalently bonded group of atoms
Define hydrate: a compound that has water chemically attached to its ions and written into its chemical formula
Who were alchemists? scientist who tried to make gold from other elements
What is the roman numeral 1? I
What is the roman numeral for 2? II
What is the roman numeral for 3? III
What is the roman numeral for 4? IV
What is the roman numeral for 5? V
What is the roman numeral for 6? VI
Even though compounds are made from charged ions, the compound itself is? neutral
What does the term hydrate mean? water
What does the term anhydrous mean? without water
How is a covalent molecule named? Use the greek prefix to indicate the number of atoms involved
An atom that has gained or lost electrons is called an? ion
What tells what elements make up a compound and the ratios of the atoms of those elements? chemical formula
A molecule that has a positive end and a negative end is what type of molecule? polar
What type of bond forms between atoms when they share electrons? covalent
A positive or negative number that is assigned to an element to show its combining ability in a compound is an? oxidation number
A compound that is composed of only two elements is a? binary compound
A group of atoms with a positive or negative charge is a? polyatomic ion
A compound that has water chemically attached to its ions is a? hydrate
The force of attraction between the opposite charges of the ions in an ionic compound is a? ionic bond
What is formed when atoms gain, lose, or share electrons? chemical bond
True or False: Compounds have properties unlike those of their elements? True
True or False: In a chemical formula, a subscript tells how many atoms of an element are in a unit of a compound? True
True or False: A chemical bond occurs when atoms lose, gain, or share electrons? True
True or False: Because each noble gas has an outer energy level that is completely filled with electrons these elements form chemical bonds easily? False
True or False: Compounds containing polyatomic ions can have both ionic and covalent bonds? True
A covalent bond is the force of attraction between the opposite charges of the ions in an ionic compound? False
True or False: Neutral particles formed as a result of covalent bonding are called molecules? True
True or False: An element that loses electrons when bonding with other atoms has a negative oxidation number? False
True or False: When writing the formula of a compound, the symbol of the element with the positive oxidation number comes first? True
What is the difference between carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide? carbon monoxide has only one oxygen atom
What is the correct name for NH₄NO₃? Ammonium Nitrate
NaF is what type of compound? binary ionic compound
What is the name of the neutral particle that forms as a result from atoms sharing electrons? molecule
Compounds that are hydrates contain what ingredient? water
What tells you how many electrons an atom has gained, lost, or shared to become stable? oxidation number
For an ion, the oxidation number is? the same as the charge on the ion
What is the name of CuO? Copper (II) Oxide
When an atom loses electrons, it? becomes more positive
The prefix for "five" in chemistry is called? penta-
A binary cmpound made with phosphorus will end with the word? phosphide
What is the name of MgS? Magnesium Sulfide
What is the name of KBr? Potassium Bromide
What is the name of BaCl₂? Barium Chloride
What kind of chemical bond is formed when a metal donates electrons to a nonmetal? ionic
In sodium chloride, which atom loses an electron? sodium
A compound is? a combination of two or more elements
In a covalent bond, electrons are? shared
How many electrons are shared in a triple bond? three pairs
When an atom's outer energy levels are not filled completely, the atom? can gain, lose, or share electons
Why do the noble gases NOT form compound readily? their outer energy levels are completely filled with electrons
When elements form bonds, it changes their? chemical and physical properties
What is Argon's oxidation number? 0
What is Sulfur's oxidation number? 2-
Most elements require how many electrons in the outer energy level? 8
A polyatomic ion is another name for what type of ion? complex
What is the hame of a binary compound made up of lithium and chlorine? lithium chloride
A covalent compound made of one sulfur and two oxygen atoms would be named? sulfur dioxide
In general, noble gases react with? nothing
In a chemical formula, the number of each type of atom in the compound is shown by numbers called? subscripts
A group of covalently bonded atoms that acts together as one charge atom is a? polyatomic ion
What is Beryllium's oxidation number? 2+
The sum of the oxidation numbers in a neutral compound is always? zero
The oxidation number of an atom is shown with a? superscript
How many electrons are needed in the outer energy levels of most atoms for the atom to be chmically stable? 8
Name the molecule formed between Magnesium and Flourine Magnesium Flouride
Ca(OH)2 is called Calcium Hydroxide
Fe2(SO4)3 is called Iron (III) Sulfate
AuF3 is called Gold (III) Flouride
Calcium Hydroxide is written as Ca(OH)2
Iron (II) Nitrate is written as Fe(NO3)2
Ammonium Sulfide is written as (NH4)2S
Carbon Dioxide CO2
Pentasulfur Monobromide S5Br
Trinitrogen Monosulfide N3S
SO2 Sulfur Dioxide
Br2O5 Dibromine Pentoxide
CCl4 Carbon Tetrachloride
Created by: basmith