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Chap. 1 GA&RPT

Chapter 1 general anatomy and radiographic positioning terminology

What are the four divisions of the body? head, neck, trunk (thorax, abdomen, pelvis) and limbs (upper and lower limbs)
Anatomy? the science of the structure of the body
Define Physiology? The study of the body organs
Define Pathology? the study of disease
Define Osteology? the study of the bones of the body
Define anatomical positioning? standing upright, limbs extended, facing front, palms facing front and feet together
What are the four fundamental planes? Sagittal, coronal, horizontal/axial and oblique
Sagittal planes? divide the body into right and left segments passing vertically from front to back
midsagittal plan? divides body into equal parts
coronal planes? pass through body vertically from side to side, dividing body into anterior/posterior parts
midcoronal plane? midaxillary plane which passes through midline and divides the body into equal halves
horizontal plane? A plane that passes crosswise through the body or body part at right angles through the longitudinal axis
What is another name for horizontal plane? transverse, axial and cross-sectional planes
Oblique plane? pass through a body part at any angle between previous three planes
How are planes used in radiographic positioning? to center a body part to the (IR) image receptor or (CR)computed radiography= imaging plate
What does the interiliac plane intersect? At the pelvis at the top of the iliac crests (level of L4)
What is an occlusal plane? formed by the biting of surfaces of the upper and lower teeth with jaws closed
What are the two great body cavities? thoracic and abdominal cavities
The lower portion of the abdominal cavity is called what? abdominopelvic cavity
What are some of the organs that are in the thoracic cavity? pleural membrane, lungs trachea, esophagus, pericardium and the heart and great blood vessels
The abdominal cavity contains what organs? peritoneum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, stomach, kidneys, intestines, ureters and major blood vessels
The pelvic cavity contains? the rectum urinary bladder and part of the reproductive system
divisions of the abdomen are bordered superiorly by what? diaphragm
what two methods are the abdomen divided into? quadrants and regions
what are the four quadrants of the abdomen? RUQ/RLU & LUQ/LLQ
What are the nine regions of the abdomen? superior regions: right hypochonrium, epigastrium and left hypochondrium middle region: right lateral umbilical and left lateral inferior regions: right inguinal hypogastrium and left inguinal
what is body habitus? common variations in the shape of the human body
body habitus determines what? size, shape and position of organs of the thoracic and abdominal cavities
what organs are affected by body habitus? heart, lumgs, diaphram, stomach, colon and gallbaldder
what are the four major types of body habitus? sthenic (regular) hyposthenic asthenic (small) hypersthenic
what type of body habitus is considered average? sthenic and hypostenic
what type of body habitus is considered extreme? hypersthenic and asthenic
body habitus affects what? positioning, image receptor selection and technique selection
what are the ten systems of the human body? skeletal, integumentary (skin), muscular, circulatory, respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive, endocrine (glands) and the nervous system
skeletal bones and adjacent joints
integumentary external covering of the body, including the skin, hair, nails and sweat glands
muscular biological system of humans that allows them to move internally and externally
circulatory made up of the heart vessels and lymphatics
respiratory the lungs , airways, diaphragm, windpipe, throat, mouth, and nasal passages. responsible for supplying blood to the body
urinary produces, stores and eliminates urine. includes two ureters, two kidneys, the bladder and the urethra
reproductive interactions of organs within an organism that strictly pertain to reproduction
endocrine small organs that involve the release of hormones that assist in puberty, tissue function and growth
nervous highly specialized tissue network whose principal component is neurons
what are some bone functions? attachment for muscles, mechanical basis for movement, protection of internal organs, support frame for body, storage for calcium and the production of red and white blood cells
total of bones in the body? 206
axial skeleton 80
appendicular skeleton 126
axial skeleton supports and protects the head and trunk (including the skull, vertebral column, sternum, and ribs)
periosteum is the outer fibrous connective tissue that covers bone
cortical or compact bone strong dense outer layer of the bone
cancellous or spongy bone forms majority at the end of long bones and is porous. also contains a spiculated network called trabeculae
what are some general bone features? trabeculae filled with red and yellow marrow. red marrow produces red and white blood cells. yellow marrow stores fat cells (adipose)
medullary cavity central cavity of long bones, contains trabeculae filled with yellow marrow. red marrow found at the epiphysis of long bones
endosteum inner covering that lines the medullary cavity
what are two processes of bone development? intermembranous (flat bones) and endochondral (long bones)
flat bones formed by intermembranous ossification
short, irregular, and long bones created by endochondral ossification
primary ossification begins before birth and forms long central shaft in long bones (diaphysis)
secondary ossification occurs after birth when separate bones begin to develop at both ends of long bones (epiphyses)
growth plate called the epiphyseal plate which is made out of hyaline cartilage
epiphysis end of the long bone separated from the main bone by a layer of hyaline cartilage
diaphysis the shaft of the long bone between the epiphyses
metaphysis portion of a long bone between the epiphyses and the diaphysis once a bone stops growing
five classification types of bones long , flat, short, irregular and sesamoid bones
example of long bones femur and humerus which consist of a body and two articular ends which provide support
example of short bones carpals and tarsals which provide limited motion
example of flat bones two plates of compact bone, ribs, sternum, scapula and cranium
diploe middle layer of cancellous (spongy)bone
example of irregular bones vertebrae and facial bones which serve as attachments for ligaments, muscles and tendons
example of a sesamoid bone the patella which is developed inside and beside tendons
Arthrology the study of joints, or articulations between bones
arthrology is classified by which two ways? functionally (how it works) and structurally more widely used(how its made).
three subdivisions based on the mobility of joint Synarthroses = immovable Amphiarthroses = slightly movable Diarthroses = freely movable
three types of structural classification based on connective tissues fibrous = synarthrodal cartilaginous = amphiarthrodal synovial = diarthrodal
name three types of fibrous joints? syndemosis, sutures, and gomphosis
example of fibrous joint/syndemosis inferior tibiofibular joint
example of fibrous joint/suture sutures in the skull, parietal/coronal etc.
example of fibrous joint/gomphosis peridontal ligaments
name two types of cartilaginous joints? symphysis and synchondrosis
example of symphysis pubic symphysis
example of synchodrosis epiphyseal plate
synovial joints are diarthrodal, freely movable enclosed by articular capsule and have miniscus and bursae
meniscus shock absorber
bursae sac of fluid
articular surface ends of bones forming the joints; thin layer of cortical over cancellous
articular cartilage covers both ends, layer of hyaline cartilage which acts as a shock absorber
articular capsule membrane that completely surrounds the joint; composed of two layers.
articular capsule/fibrous layer outer layer which connects capsule to periosteum of the bone
articular capsule/synovial membrane inner layer forms the lining for joint cavity; produces thick yellow fluid to reduce friction (synovial fluid)
meniscus pad of fibrocartilage which surrounds the joints. shock absorber
bursae fluid filled sacs outside the joint cavity that help reduce friction. found between skin and bone, tendon and bone or muscle and bone
ligaments fibrous tissue which connects two bones. provides support and strengthens the joints
tendons small cord like tissue that connects muscle to bone
muscle crosses the joint and also gives additional support
name the six synovial joints? gliding, hinge, pivot, ellipsoid, saddle, and ball in socket
gliding joint simplest synovial joint, uniaxial movement characterized by flat or slightly curved surfaces that slide over each other during movement
example of a gliding joint intercarpal and intertarsal joints
hinge joint permits flexion and extension only; uniaxial.
example of hinge joint elbow or knee
pivot joint allows rotation around a single axis; rounded bone is encircled by a ring of cartilage or bone. uniaxial
example of pivot joint atlantoaxial joint (c1-c2) radioulnar joint
ellipsoid joint allows flexion,entension,abduction,adduction and circumduction. allows movement in two directions at right angles. biaxial.
examples of ellipsoid joint radiocarpal (wrist) joint and MCPJ
saddle joint allows movement similar to ellipsoid; biaxial. difference is in the shape of the articular surface
example of a saddle joint thumb/tibiotailor
ball and socket joint permits widest range of motion; multiaxial movement. round head of one bone fits into a cup shaped depression of another bone. allows flexion,extension,abduction,adduction,circuction,and rotation
examples of ball and socket joint hip and shoulder
processes or projections out from the main body of the bone
depressions hollow or depressed area
fractures disruption, break in the bone
condyle rounded projection ex. femur
coracoid or coronoid beak like process ex. scapula
crest narrow ridge of bone
epicondyle rounded process above bigger condyle
facet process, small smooth articular surface
hamulus hook like process that comes off bones
head expanded ends of long bones
horn pointed projection
line linear, not as prominent as a crest, process that comes off a bone
malleolus club shaped process, mallali at distal end of fib-tib
protuberance an elevated projection or projection or process
spine crest, spinous process
styloid projections of bones
trochanter round elevated process of femur ex. greater and lesser trochanter
tubercle really small ex. humerus
tuberosity intermediate ex. tibial tuberosity
fissure narrow slit, cleft or groove
foramen hole in bone
fossa pit or hollow space ex. glenoid fossa
groove shallow linear channel
meatus tubelike passage ex. EAM external auditory meatus
notch indentation in a bone ex. ulna radius sits in the notch
sinus a recess groove cavity or hollow space ex. sinuses
sulcus furrow or trench ex. central sulcus in the brain`
aperature a hole or opening
foramen a hole or opening
hiatus opening or a gap ex. asophgheal hiatus
orifice an opening into an organ ex. cardiac orifice/opening between esophagus and stomach
Os opening or mouth
ostium small opening or orifice ex. fallopian tubes
lumen hollow opening, cavity of organ
porus pore, skin
incisura notch, cleft
meatus tubelike (EAM)passage
capitulum means little head
neck adjacent to a head ex. femur
body/shaft principle part of the body of a long bone
Ala means a wing, pelvis also fossa
fovea depression, small pit
hilus depression indentation on the surface of an organ
tail tapered end of a structure
lobe sud division of an organ
lobule sub division of a lobe
segment unit of structure with its own blood supply
extremity the end of a long bone, epipyseal segment
apex pointed end of a structure
base a broad flat end of a structure
ventral means the front, anterior
dorsal back or posterior, back of the hand
internal means on the inside of the body
intrinsic apart of the organ, avioli to the lungs
closed fracture fracture that has not broken the skin
open fracture fracture that has broken the skin
non-displaced fracture fracture that is still in alignment. will always be a closed fracture.
displaced fracture fracture that needs to be physically placed back into position.
compression fracture fracture caused by force
compound (open) fracture fracture that disrupts the skin
simple fracture fracture that is non-displaced
greenstick fracture that is caused when the outer layers of the bone break. ex. seen more in kids/outer are disrupted
transverse fractures fractures that break straight across
spiral or oblique fractures fractures that break in the bone at an angle
comminuted fractures fractures that have fragments
impacted fractures dent in the bone, also called depressed fractures
what are the four basic types of tissues? epithelium, connective, muscular, and nervous
epithelium tissue lines the cavities throughout the body. ex. body orifices which have no blood vessels
epithelium cells are classified by which three factors? shape, stratification, and specializations
what are the three types of cartilage? hyaline, fibrocartilage, and elastic
what are the three types of connective tissue? cartilage, bone, and blood
what are four functions of the skin? protection, excretion, regulation, and sensation
what are the layers of the skin? epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis
what are the five layers of the epidermis? stratum corneum,translucent layer, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, and stratum basale
germinal layer gives pigment
appendages of the skin hair and nails
anterior = ventral
posterior = dorsal
caudad/caudal toward the toes
cephalad/cephalic towards the head
superior above
inferior below
central toward the midline
peripheral towards the outside
medial towards middle section of the body
lateral towards the outside of the body
superficial near the skin or surface
deep far from surface
distal farthest from point of origin
proximal near the point of attachment or origin
external outside the body or part; away from body
internal inside, toward the body
parietal wall
visceral organ
ipsilateral same side of body
contralateral opposite side of body
palmer palm surface of hand,anterior
plantar bottom of foot
dorsum back of hand or top of foot
projection path of central ray ex. AP/PA/(R)LATERAL/(L) LATERAL
position supine,prone etc ex. RAO/LAO/RPO/LPO
view what the image receptor sees
method named after scientist
AP anterior to posterior
PA posterior to anterior
tangential skimming a part
lateral lateral shaft of bone
oblique axial projection
what are some general body positions? upright, seated, recumbent, supine, prone, and oblique
trendeleburgs position feet are higher than the head
fowlers position head higher than feet
sims' position lying on left side with right leg in front
decubitus position projection horizontal to floor
Created by: eckoultd1972