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# Ch. 2 Industrial Psy

### Vocabulary

Question | Answer |
---|---|

scientific method | A controlled, objective, and sytematic approach to research. |

experimental method | Scientific way to determine the effect of influence of a variable on the subjects' behavior. |

independent variable | In an experiment, this is the stimulus variable that is manipulated to determine its effect on the subjects' behavior. |

dependent variable | In an experiment, this is the resulting behavior of the subjects, which depends on the manipulation of the independent variable. |

experimental group | In an experiment, this is the group of research participants exposed to the independent variable. |

control group | In an experiment, this is the group of research participants that is not exposed to the independent variable. |

random group design | A method for ensuring similarity between experimental and control groups that assigns subjects at random to each condition. |

matched group design | A method for ensuring similarity between experimental and control groups on characteristics, such as age, job experience, and intelligence, that could affect the dependent variable. |

naturalistic observation | The scientific observation of behavior in its natural setting, without any experimental manipulation of the independent variable. |

survey research method | Interviews, behavioral observations, and questionnaires designed to sample what people say about their feelings or opinions, or how they say they will behave in a given situation. |

open-end questions | Survey questions to which respondents state their views in their own words. They are similar to essay questions on college exams. |

fixed-alternative questions | Survey questions to which respondents limit their answers to the choices or alternatives presented. They are similar to multiple-choice questions on college exams. |

probability sampling | A method for constructing a representative sample of a population for surveys or polls. Each person in the population has a known probability or chance of being included in the sample. |

quota sampling | A method for constructing a representative sample of a population for surveys or polls. Because the sample must reflect the proportions of the larger population, quotas are established for various categories such as age, gender, and ethnic origin. |

descriptive satistics | Ways of describing or representing research data in a concise, meaningful manner. |

frequency distribution | A graphic representation of raw data that shows the number of times each score occurs. |

mean | The arithmetic average; a way describing the central tendency of a distribution data. |

median | The score at the midpoint of statistical distribution; half the scores fall below the median and half above. |

mode | The most frequently obtained score in a distribution data. |

normal distribution | A bell-shaped distribution of data in which most scores fall near the center and few fall the extreme low and high ends. |

skewed distribution | An asymmetrical distribution of data with most scores at either the high or the low end. |

standard deviation | A measure of the variability of a distribution. The standard deviation is a precise distance along the distribution's baseline. |

correlation | The relationship between two variables. The strength and direction of the relationship is expressed by the correlation coefficient. |

statistical significance | The level of confidence in the results of an experiment. Significance is based on the calculation of probability values. |

inferential statistics | Methods for analyzing research data that express relationships in terms of probabilities. |

probability | The idea that the differences between the means of experimental and control groups could have occurred by chance. |

meta-analysis | The large-scale reanalysis of the results of previous research studies. |

I-O Psychology | The application of the methods, facts, and principles of the science of psychology to people at work. |

Hawthorne Studies | It documented the influence of a variety of managerial and organizational factors on employee behavior. |