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# 361 Ch 1 & 2

### Industrial Psychology

Question | Answer |
---|---|

Industrial - Organizational (I-O) Psychology | involves the application of the methods, facts and principles of psychology to people at work |

Hawthorne studies | long-term research program found that social and psychological factors in the work environment were of potentially greater importance than physical factors |

control group | group of research participants not exposed to the independent variable |

correlation | relationship between two variables. |

dependent variable | the resulting behavior of the subjects which depends on the manipulation of the independent variable |

descriptive statistics | ways of describing or representing research data in a concise, meaningful manner |

experimental group | group of research participants exposed to the independent variable |

experimental method | scientific way to determine the effet or influence of a variable on the subjects' performance or behavior |

fixed-alternative questions | survey questions to which respondents limit their answers to the choices or alternatives presented. Similar to multiple-choice |

frequency distribution | graphic representation of raw data that shows the number of times each score occurs |

independent variable | stimulus variable that is manipulated |

inferential statistics | methods for analyzing research data that express relationships in terms of probabilities |

matched group design | method for ensuring similarity between experimental and control groups that matches subjects in both groups on characteristics (age, job experience, IQ) |

meta-analysis | large-scale reanalysis of the results of previous research studies |

naturalistic observation | scientific observation of behavior in its natural setting w/o independent variable |

normal distribution | bell-shaped distribution of data in which most scores fall near the center and few fall at the extreme low and high ends |

open-end questions | survey questions to which answers are given in ones' own words, similar to essay questions |

probability | idea that the differences between the means of experimental and control groups could have occurred by chance |

probability sampling | each person in the population has a known probability or chance of being included in the sample |

quota sampling | sample must reflect the proportions of the larger population, quotas are established for various categories (age, gender, ethnic groups) |

random group design | method for ensuring similarity between experimental & control groups that assigns subjects at random to each condition |

scientific method | a controlled, objective, and systematic approach to research |

skewed distribution | an asymmetrical distribution of data with most scores at either the high or low end |

standard deviation | measure of the variability of a distribution, a precise distance along the distribution's baseline |

statistical significance | level of confidence in the results of an experiment. based on calculation of probability values |

survey research method | interviews, behavioral observations, and questionnaires designed to sample what people say about their feelings or opinions, or how they say they will behave in a given situation |

correlation coefficient | strength and direction of relationship correlation |