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I/O Psych

LA Tech, Psych. 516 Test 1 Chapter 4

QuestionAnswer
Criteria Problem difficulties in the process of conceptualizing and measuring performance constructs that are multidimensional, dynamic, and appropriate for different purposes
difference between predictors and criteria time
predictive standards if evaluative standards are administered before the hiring or promotion decision is made, the standards are _______.
criterion standards If the evaluative standards are administered after the hiring or firing decision has been made, the standards are _______.
criteria operational statements of goals or desired outcomes. Something that is important or valuable
Evaluative Standard Can be used to measure a person’s performance, attitude, motivation, etc.
possible criteria (examples) output measures, quality measures, lost time, employability, trainability, promotability, ratings of performance, counterproductive behaviors
Ultimate Criterion describes the full domain of performance and includes everything that defines success on the job. conceptual, can't be measured. include an employee's "total" contribution or "ultimate worth" throughout career.
Three Types of Dimensionality of Criteria Static, Dynamic, and Individual
static dimensionality of criteria a single point in time. important to note: it is still multidimensional in nature. Refers to two issues: (1) individuals may be high on one facet and low on another (2) Typical performance is very different from maximum or minimum performance.
two general facets of performance task performance and contextual performance
task performance activities that transform raw materials into goods and services that are produced by the organization. Activities that aid with the production or service.
contextual performance Behaviors that create a good environment in which tasks are performed.
Dynamic or Temporal Dimensionality change over time. note: When should the criterion measures be taken? Performance may change over time.
when there is not time for ultimate criteria, these 3 substitute criteria can be used. Immediate, Intermediate, and Summary Criteria. All Immediate and Intermediate criteria are partial, since they give only an approximation of the Ultimate Criterion
Immediate Criteria Near-term measures, first performance, first test after training
Intermediate Criteria Obtained at a later time, usually six months after initial measurement
Summary Criteria Expressed in longer-term averages or totals
3 distinct ways criteria may be dynamic (1) changes over time in average levels of group performance, (2)*** changes over time in validity coefficients, and (3) changes over time in the rank ordering of the scores on the criterion
Two hypotheses of why validities might change over time 1. Changing Task Model 2. Changing Subjects Model
changing task model Suggests that while the relative amounts of ability possessed by an individual remain stable over time, criteria for effective performance maychange in importance. validity of predictors of performance might also change b/c of this.
Changing Subjects Model while specific abilities required for effective performance remain constant over time, each individual’s level of ability changes over time, and that is why validities may fluctuate.
Individual Dimensionality possible for 2 people with same job to be considered equally good; yet the contributions to their org. are quite different. A useful means of determining whether the same job, as performed by different people is psychologically the same or different.
3 challenges in criteria development 1. Job Performance Unreliability 2. Job Performance Observation 3. Dimensionality of Job Performance
Job performance unreliability -Intrinsic Unreliability- Personal inconsistency - Extrinsic Unreliability-natural disaster, machine failure - Average behaviors over time is possible solution but: No shortcut, not panacea -rank ordering of people changes over time
Job Performance Observation Different observation methods may yield different conclusions. Observation methods must be consistent and related to job observed
Dimensionality of Job Performance -Most job perf. measures use Global Criterion - Global scores are simplistic, more detail needed for most important predictors. -specific aspects of job: Global criteria is fine. For job w/ more aspects, multiple criteria are needed.
Steps in Criterion Development -Analyze Job&Org. needs -Dev. Measure of Actual/Expected Behaviors -Identify Criterion Dimensions(Factor Analysis, Cluster Analysis,& Pattern Analysis) -Make Reliable Measures -Determine Predictive Validity of each Predictor for each Criterion
3 steps in Evaluating Criteria Relevance Sensitivity or Discriminability Practicality
Relevance o A criterion “reflects the relative standing of employees with respect to important work behavior(s) or outcome(s)” o Not always cheap or easy to develop o Must decide what “success” means o Objective and subjective measures are not interchangeable
Sensitivity or Discriminability o Must be able to distinguish between effective and ineffective employees o Can be completely different from variance
Practicality o Must be able to balance the requirements and needs for criterion data to needs of organization to run cost effectively and to maintain profitability
Criterion Deficiency - Criterion must be complete in addressing all critical aspects of successful job performance
Criterion Contamination happens when operational or actual criterion includes variation not related to the performance measurement
Two types of contamination: o Error – random or chance variation o Bias – systematic variation  Bias can happen in three ways • Knowledge of Predictor • Group Membership • Ratings
Criterion Equivalence -Occurs when 2 or more criteria: -are perfectly correlated -measure the same set of skills -can be used interchangeably -Very rare to find -When considering equivalency must also look at time and type of measurement
Criterion Equivalence Management -May decide to drop one (reducing redundancy) -May keep “in case” more is better -May collect data relevant to both/all criteria
Composite criterion o “Sum” to give one score or rating o Must address issue of weighting each part
Multiple criteria o Different job skills require different scores o Criterion reflect required behaviors o View validation as necessary for understanding as well as economic need
composite and multiple criteria are both needed to to reach the goals of understanding and utility
Created by: cjd021