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Fundamentals of Rad

Fundamentals of radiologic technology

What are the Fundamentals of Radiologic Technology? History, Professionalism, X ray Production and Protection.
Who discovered x rays? Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen
What was the date of x rays discovery? Nov 8, 1895
Where were x rays discovered? Wirsburg, Germany
What is a Crookes Tube? A partially evacuated blown glass tube which investigates the conduction of cathode rays.
What are cathode rays? Electrons
How were x rays discovered? Wilhelm Roentgen was experimenting with a Crookes tube when he discovered x rays.
what type of charge is an anode? Positive charge.
What type of charge is a canode? Negative charge.
Who discovered the hand held fluoroscope? Thomas Edison
Who discovered how x rays were actually absorbed by the bones? Albert Einstein/photoelectric absorbtion
What creates the contrast in an image? Photoelectric absorption
Who discovered x ray scatter? Arthur Compton
What can cause scatter effects on x ray images? Adipose tissue, muscle and pathology can produce scatter.
Who was the first person to have an x ray related death? Clarence Dally died in 1904
what is JRCERT? Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology
what is JCAHO ? Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations
what does the certification RT stand for? Registered technologist
Who discovered Uranium? Henri Becquerel in 1896
Who discovered radium and polonium? Marie Curie
Define matter? anything that occupies up space and has form.
What are the 3 states of matter? gas, liquid and solid.
Define mass? the quantity of matter.
How many (kg) make up 2.2 pounds? 1 kilogram (kg)= 2.2 lbs
Define energy? the ability to do work
Energy at rest is called what? potential energy
Energy in motion is called what? kinetic energy. ex. heat, light and x rays
Energy in motion at the atomic or molecular level is called? thermal energy.
What are some forms of electromagnetic energy? x-rays, radio frequency waves, microwaves and visible light.
In the equation E=mc(2)what does each letter stand for? energy = mass x constant
What is radiography? imaging modality that uses x-ray film or computer matrix and x-ray tube that provides static images
What is Fluoroscopy? imaging modality that provides a continuous image of the motion of internal structures.
Fluoroscopic c-arm and o- arms are used where? operating room
What is tomography? imaging modality used to blur out unwanted anatomy by moving the x ray tube and (IR) in opposite directions
Define (IR)? medium that transforms x ray beam into a visible image
What are three types of image receptors? film,computed radiography or CR/imaging plate and DR or digital imaging/flat panel detector
What is the central ray? the center of the x-ray beam that interacts with the (IR) or image receptor
What is a photon? A discrete form of energy that is an invisible beam
What is used by computed radiography (CR)to capture images? A computer and imaging plate
What is used by Digital Radiography (DR)to capture images? A computer is used to capture directly and indirectly on a flat panel
What is Film/Screen Imaging? image captured by film/cassette
What is a radiograph? An image on film
What is an image? on computer matrix not a picture
Supine(soup) means ? lying down on your back face up
Prone means? lying on your stomach face down
Decubitus and Recumbent means? the act of lying down
The angle of degrees is? Oblique
What is another name for anterior? ventral
What is another name for posterior? dorsal
Define projection? path of the central ray
Define view? what the (IR) image receptor sees
Define position? the way the patient is placed in
what is an x-ray? a form of electromagnetic radiation
there are eight types of electromagnetic radiation, which are ionizing? cosmic, gamma, xray, and UV
the other four types of non-ionizing radiation are? visible light, infrared, microwaves and radio frequency waves
define applitude? the height of a wave
ionizing radiation is harmful becuase? the atom gains or looses an electron
define wavelength? the distance between two waves
define angstrom? unit of measurement of wavelength
what is the average wavelength for diagnostic xrays? 0.1-0.5 A (degree sign)
define frequency? number of wavelengths per unit measure
define hertz? unit of measurement in physics (hz)
what are some of the 12 properties of EM or electromagentic radiation? invisible highly penetrated, travel in straight line, travel at the speed of light in a vacuum, can not be focused by a lens, ionize matter,produce secoundary and scatter radiation
what is a atom? the smallest part of an element
what shell has the highest binding energy? k the inner most shell has the highest binding energy
define electron cascading? when an outside electron starts filling the inner shell holes
what makes up the atomic number? the number of protons in the nucleus which is also equal to the same number of electrons
what is the atomic mass? the total mass of protons,neutrons and electrons
what is an isotope? an element with the same number of protons and different number of neurons
where are xrays produced? in hot cathode coolidge tubes which are encased in lead
components of a coolidge tube glass or metal envelope surrounded by oil or fanned air and a lead tube housing
what is the glass made out of pyrex
glass or metal envelope houses negative and positive electrodes and provides a vacuum for free flow of e- stream
lead housing protects from leakage radiation and acts as a ground ex. <100 mR/hour at 1 m from tube
positive electrode anode normally mounted at head end of table, tungsten-rhenium target. 1. high melting point 3300-3410 degrees celcius. 2. good conductor of heat. 3. high atomic mass number of 74. 4. k-shell binding energy of 69
target stops e-, converts kinetic energy into 99% thermal and 1% x ray
old target embedded in copper block caused melting and pitting
target of today rotating rotor with ball bearings to dissipate heat produced 3,300-10,000 rpm
negative electrode cathode dual focused coils of tungsten filament wire. thermionic emission supply free e-. also surrounded by metal focusing cup which focuses e- stream from filament on to target of anode
what are the steps of x ray production? thermiotic emission from filament- rotor stage focusing of e- stream focusing cup potential difference-exposure stage which causes excess e- from filament to flow to target method of stopping-target, giving off thermal, light and x ray
what are the two types of radiation emission? bremsstrahlung and characteristic
brems-braking e-s approach the nucleus of tungsten electrons but don't have enough energy to cause ionization. force of attraction slows e-s which change direction and continue on. loss of energy in form of bremms radiation
characteristic x ray incoming e- has enough energy to overcome k shell binding energy of 69, causes loss of e-(free e-)which in turn starts e- cascading. gives off characteristic x rays
gamma naturally occurring and come from within the nucleus (NM)
beta particles high speed e-s (electrons)
alpha particles by particles of radiation decay
neurons used in radiation therapy
penetration distances alpha = paper beta = plastic gamma and x rays = lead
common interactions in the body photoelectric absorption, majority of interactions and gives black and white contrast to images
compton scatter diagnostics x ray range 40-150 kvp. scatter fogs image, too much = less contrast, fogs image, majority backscatter 180 degrees
tissue density/air easiest to penetrate
tissue density/bone hardest to penetrate (more absorption)more water content= increased s/s (scatter)
mA (mA)milliamperage; quantity of radiation
amperage unit of measure of current (flow of electrons) filament current 3-5 amps
tube current we set by selecting mA depends on part size milli- 1/1000
What does mA control? patient dose, density - degree of blackening on the image receptor (related to radiograph). image brightness - measurement of luminance on digital image/ computer matrix
kVp (kVp)also (kv) kilovolts peak beam quality energy or penetration abilty
how is kVp controlled? controlled by potential difference between filament and cathode unit of measure voltage kilo - 1000 ex. kvp 70 for abdomen = 70000 volts
kVp controls? black, white and gray scale
radiographic contrast density differences between adjacent areas
image contrast default processing algorithm which signal differences between adjacent areas
ALARA as low as reasonably possible higher kvp so more penetration lower mA so less quantity
CR -S exposure index computed radiography 100-200 range underexposed/grainy image repeat overexposed/not good for ALARA
DR -DAP EXI digital radiography - dose area product 125-500- direct relationship film and DR images
radiation safety/ film screen only on film screen can you see over or underexposed images
exposure time duration of exposure fractions, seconds, and ms. as short as possible to reduce motion blur on image. also to control voluntary and involuntary motion
SID source to image receptor distance as long practical less patient dose and less chance of size distortion 40-48" chest table 72" chest upright wall bucky
mAs mA x time = quantity & time indirect relationship increase mA, decrease time to have constant mAs ex. mas set higher for quantity on abdomen and kvp would be less
basic radiation protection time as short as possible distance as long as possible ISL inverse square law gamma v xray shielding/lead
walls/primary barrier 1/16" pb and concrete from floor up to 7' protects from primary beam
walls/secondary barrier from top of primary to ceiling with 1/2" overlap; 1/32" lead (pb) equivalent protects from scatter and leakage
lead aprons .5mm lead equivalent
glasses thyroid shields, gloves, lead drapes, bucky slot cover .25mm lead equivalent
lead protection for patients .25mm lead equivalent flat contact, shadow, moveable, shaped, lens and breast
rules for applying lead shielding patient of child bearing age 0- 55yrs does not cover anatomy of interest gonads within 5cm. do not use shield and do sloppy work which requires repeat
how to handle pregnant patients posting, informed consent, questioning adolescents/adults
roentgen (r) exposure in air of x or gamma(skin dose to patient)
gray (rad) absorbed dose of any radiation in any tissue
sievert (rem) dose equivalent for personnel - absorbed dose and factors in energy of radiation exposed to for more accurate measure
1 gray = 100 rad
1 sievert = .001 rem
sV = gy x weighing factor
occupational (whole body) stochastic effects 50 msv (5rem)/year if less than 18 yo 1 msv (.1 rem)
occupational deterministic effects 500 msv (50 rem)/year- hands, feet, and other organs 150 msv (15 rem)/year - lens
occupational embryo/fetal effects 5 msv (.5 rem)/gestation .5 msv (.05 rem)/ month fetal monitor
whole body continuous 1 msv (.1 rem)/year
whole body infrequent 5 msv(.5 rem)/year
others 1/10 occupational
Created by: eckoultd1972