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PilbeamCHAPTER 2

Student Study Note Cards

QuestionAnswer
What is a ventilator? (RQ) (KH) Machine/device that can fully or partially substitute for the ventalitory work accomplished by the patient's muscles. (RQ) (KH)
This type of ventilator is set to deliver a tidal volume of 600ml. Only 450ml are actually being delivered to the patient. This vent contains a system that will compensate for the lost volume. What type of system is this? (ApQ) (KH) Closed-loop system (ApQ) (KH)
The ventilator you are working with in the ICU is a combination ventilator. What does this mean and what does each power source control? (AzQ) (KH) This vent is both electrically and pneumatically powered. Pneumatic source powers the energy to deliver the breath and the electrical source powers the internal functions of the vent. (AzQ) (KH)
What are the two basic parts of a ventilator? (RQ) (MK) user interface and control system (RQ) (MK)
This type of control system delivers what you set for it to deliver. It does not count for the lost volume. These are mostly found on older types of ventilators or home ventilators. What type of control system is this? (ApQ) (MK) Open (Unintelligent) system (ApQ) (MK)
This type of ventilator has an on and off switch to start and stop the power. What type of power source is this ventilator and in the hospital, where should this ventilator always be plugged in at? (AzQ) (MK) Electrical power source RED outlet (AzQ) (MK)
How are ventilators classified? (RQ)(AB) -Positive or Negative pressure -Power source -Control system -Driving mechanism (RQ) (AB)
If you are transferring a patient from the hospital to a rehab center, What type of ventilator would you use and why? (AzQ) (AB) IPPB - Because it is pneumatically powered (AzQ) (AB)
While setting up a ventilator, you notice that it is not working. After no success at troubleshooting, where would you send the vent to be repaired? (ApQ)(AB) Biomedical (ApQ)(AB)
What is the difference between pneumatic, electrical, and combination powered? (MC) Pneumatic- air powered Electrical- has to be plugged in or a battery source Combination- uses both power systems (mc)
Define unintelligent circuit. (MC) It is a open system where a setting is delivered no matter what. (MC)
Give an example of a vent that is a positive, pneumatic powered, open control system and a flow controlled driving mech. (MC) Bird or Bennett IPPB (MC)
What are the different types of driving mechanisms in ventilators? (KAH) Blower, volume displacement, flow control values (RQ)
In an open system the Vt is set at 600ml what will be the amount delivered to the patient? (KAH) 600ml, it will deliver the amount set even if it is losing some to the the circuit (APQ)
What is the difference between the user interface and the control system. (RQ) (BH) User interface-what therapists see and use Control system- internal system that takes what we entered as settings and produces the desired output (RQ) (BH)
Describe the type of vent, power source, control system, and driving mechanism of an NIV. (AzQ) (BH) Type: Positive Pressure Power: Electrical Control System: Open Driving Mechanism: Blower/Compressor (AzQ) (BH)
What type of driving mechanism would an 840 ventilator use? Where are these usually seen? (ApQ) (BH) Flow Control Valve ICU (ApQ) (BH)
What is the most common type of ventilator found in the ICU? (AT) Positive pressure, flow control, closed system, combination powered vent (RQ)
If we are using a iPPB Bird what is the type of vent, the power source, the control system and the driving mechanism used? (KAH) Positive pressure, pneumatic, open, and flow control valve (Apq)
What is a closed system and why is it more favorable in the ICU or with critically ill patients? (AT) An intelligent system that compares set settings to mearsured results. It is favored because it compensates for lost volume or small changes with the patient. (AzQ)
What type of vent would you chose for a patient moving from ICU to general care who requires continuous ventilatory support? (AT) Bird Mark 7 (ApQ)
Who developed the classification system for ventilators? (RQ)(JB) Mr. Robert Chatburn (RQ) (JB)
The user interface consist of what? (ApQ) (JB) knobs, buttons, touch screens to enter settings on. (ApQ) (JB)
If you are moving a pt home on a ventilator, what would you want this ventilator's classifications to be? (AzQ) (JB) Positive, electrical, open, compressor. (AzQ) (JB)
When were there the first ventilators?(RQ)(TM) 1950-1960s
Which type uses valves to control gas flow and uses this driving mechanism in ICU Vents?(ApQ)(TM) Flow control
What type of ventilator is both electrically and pneumatically driven and is found on most vents where?(AzQ)(TM) Combo; ICU
Ventilation has been around since when? (CG) 1800s (RQ)
When would you want a flow control valve ventilator over a blower/compressor ventilator? (CG) short term vs long term, sensitive for patient care vs not sensitive (ApQ)
If a patient was admitted through the ED to the ICU, what ventilator settings would be practical? (CG) positive ventilation, combination power source, closed system, and flow control valves due to the acuity of the patient. (AzQ)
Why is it important to have ventilators plugged into the red outlets? In case of a power outage, they would be plugged into the generator back up system. (RQ) (KM)
How does a combination powered ventilator use both the pneumatic power and electrical power? It uses the electrical power to to control the internal function and the pneumatic power to deliver the breath. (AzQ)(KM)
What is a micropressor? And what does a micropressor-controlled ventilator have the ability to do? A mircopressor is a single chip made up of many integrated circuits. A micropressor-controlled ventilator comes with pre preprogrammed mode but has the ability to upgrade by downloading new software to it. (ApQ) (KRM)
Classification system of ventilators was developed by who?(MB) Robert Chatburn. RQ
You have a patient that needs to get an airway and be ventilated, the patient has had long term ventilation. What would be best? (MB) a Positive pressure, combination source, closed system with flow control valves. With a trach. (ApQ)
An IPPB uses what kind of power transmission and conversion system. (MB) Flow control valves (RQ)
What was introduced first, PEEP or CPAP? (RK) PEEP 1967, CPAP 1971 (RQ)
what kind kind of power source(s) can a ventilator be? (RK) Electrical (home ventilators) Pneumatic ( transport ventilators) Combination (ICU ventilators) (ApQ)
What classifications does a Bennett have? (name all 4) (RK) Positive, pneumatic, open, flow control. (AzQ)
A ventilator using volume displacements uses what mechanism to fill volume? RQ (ACE) Uses Bellows or Pistons. RQ (ACE)
When setting up a circuit what parts will you want to check? ApQ (ACE) The main inspiratory line, the patient adapter/y-connection, expiratory line, expiratory valve. ApQ (ACE)
In an open system set to give a Vt of 600 mL if there is a leak what will it deliver to the patient and what would the patient receive? AzQ (ACE) The device would deliver 600 mL, but due to the leak the patient would receive less because it would not compensate for the lost volume. AzQ (ACE)
If you are working with a patient on a vent in the ICU what type of Control System would you find? (AC) rq closed (AC) rq
What type of power source is most commonly used and what does this do. (AC) combination, pneumatic source powers the energy to deliver a breath and electrical sources power the internal functions of the ventilator (AC)
If you are taking care of an ill patient, why woud a Blower System not be a good driving mechanism? When would it be okay to use for this type of patient? (AC) It doesnt have the the highflows we need for ill patients. It can be used if we need to transport the pt. for a procedure or appointment ect. (AC)
Robert Chatburn developed a classification system of what? RQ (BL) ventilators
The part we see and use as a control panel is called ________. It is an (internal/external) feature containing knobs buttons, touch screen to enter ventilator _________. AZQ (BL) user interface ; external ; settings
A circuit is set at 750mL and it delivers that amount regardless of lost volume in the circuit. This is an __________ system, which is also called an __________ system. ApQ (BL) Open ; unintelligent
Of the basic elements in a patient circuit, what does the expiratory valve do? RQ (RT) It allows release of exhaled gas from the expiratory line into the room.
If a patient has a VT of 500 mL, and a respiratory rate of 16 what would you use as a Mandatory Minute Ventilation value? ApQ (RT) A value less than 8 Lpm.
Flow or Pressure: a solenoid can be controlled by _______ to change the __________. AzQ A solenoid can be controlled by pressure to change the flow.
Define a closed-loop system (AH) Described as "intelligent". This system compares the set control variable to the measured control variable and can respond to changes in patient's condition.
What phases of a breath are considered "active." (AH) Exhalation to Inspiration, Inspiration, and Inspiration to Exhalation.
Given the information, find the intrinsic PEEP. Extrinsic PEEP 3cmH2O, Total PEEP 8cmH2O. (AH) Intrinsic PEEP= 8cmH2O-3cmH2O=5cmH2O
In an Open-looped system the Vt is set at 700ml. The patient's exhaled Vt is 550ml. How much of the delivered Vt is lost and where might it have gone? (AH) 700ml-550ml=150ml is lost. Might have been lost in ventilator circuit.
If the Vt is set at 550ml once this is acheieved the vent will allow the pt to exhale. This is called _________, and it also ends inspiration and begins ___________. (KJ)AzQ Cycling; exhalation (KJ)
When will Raw be increased?(KJ) RQ Airway Obstruction, ET tube with a small diameter, obiesty. (KJ)
Given the information, calculate PaO2/FiO2 to determine if your pt has extensive lung damage or not. PaO2= 80 FiO2=.28 (KJ) ApQ 80/.28= 286. This pt has ALI because our result was 200-300. (KJ)
In a positive pressure ventilator why does the gas flow into the lungs? (CZ) (RQ) This is because the ventilator made a pressure gradient by creating a positive pressure at the opening of the airway (CZ)
In a closed system the setting for Vt is set at 650 ml. How many ml will be delivered to the patient? (CZ) (ApQ) In a closed system the ventilator will adjust to give the right Vt to the patient.
Name three setting components that are found on a ventilator control panel and what four variables do they ultimately regulate? (CZ) (AzQ) Tidal volume, rate, inspiratory time, alarms, and FiO2. Which regulate flow, volume, pressure, and time.
What type of control system delivers a set setting no matter what? What type of setting would you most likely find me? (NB) Open System- Unitelligent System In home Setting (ArQ)
What year was the IMV introduced? (NB) 1973 (RQ)
How many Clasifications of Vents are there? Name a vent that would fit in each category.(NB) 4- pOSITIVE OR nEGATIVE PRESSURE (IPPB, Iron lung) Power Source- LP10 Control System or Circuits- VDR Power Transmission & Conversion System- ICU vents - LTV 1200 (RzQ)
This ventilator depends on compressed gas sources for power. (Marianne B.) Pneumatically powered ventilator (RQ)
How do spring loaded bellows work as a volume-displacement device? (Marianne B.) The spring applies force to the bellows, causing the gas to be delivered to the patient. (ApQ)
Compare and contrast open and closed loop systems. (Marianne B.) Open loop: the ventilator doesn't diverge from the settings. Closed loop: the ventilator compares the measured variables to those that were set and responds by adapting to meet patient needs. (AzQ)
What kind of driving mechanism uses many valves to detect and change volume delivered to the pt in seconds? (RQ) JM Flow control valves
A pt on a volume vent suddenly sneezes while the vent is going through the inspiratory phase. The inspiration phase stops suddenly and the Vt delivered is .3 L less than what you set. What caused this inspiration to end prematurely? (AzQ) JM The ventilator pressure cycled and raised the peak airway pressure that the vent sensed during the sneeze.
If we set a PEEP for a pt on 10 cmH2O and after a breath hold, the vent says the pt has a total PEEP of 25 cmH2O? What does this tell us? Why would we want to know this? (ApQ) JM This shows the pt has an intrinsic PEEP of 15cmH2O. This is important to know if the pt is air trapping (COPD).
What makes the closed control system "intelligent" (JoeB) The ventilator adjusts itself based on the value of measured results.
What is the best uses for a blower/compressor type of system? (JoeB) Transporting a patient or wall outlet failure.
What ventilator power source is the most used today? (JoeB) Combination Electrical/Pneumatic
What type of ventilator delivers a breath that is most like a natural breath? (JAB) Negative pressure ventilator
If you are on a ventilator that is powered both electrically and pneumaticall, where are you most likely located? (JAB) The intensive care unit (ICU).
If the Vt is set for 700 ml and there is a leak of 200 ml, how much is the patient receiving? What type of ventilator system can't compensate for this loss? (JAB) 500 ml, Open loop
Created by: MechVent