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XR 103

chapter 14

anatomy the structure of the body
physiology the function of the body
pathology the study of disease, which causes abnormal changes in the structure or function of body tissues and organs
what are the 6 levels of structural organization of the human body chemical level cellular level tissue level organ level systemic level body as a whole
cells the smallest units of all living things
what are the 3 main parts of a cell plasma membrane cytoplasm nucleus
what are the 4 main types of tissues epithelial connective muscle nervous
function of epithelial tissues to protect the underlying tissue
function of connective tissue to hold together tissues and organs; also makes up the structure of bone, cartilage, and fat
function of muscle tissue functions to produce movement
function of nervous tissue functions to conduct electric impulses, providing rapid communication between body structures and control of body functions
the largest and most complex units of the body the organs
how many major organ systems are there? 11
what are the 11 major organ systems? integumentary muscular nervous endocrine circulatory lymphatic respiratory digestive urinary reproductive skeletal
what is the integumentary systeme the skin ALSO INCLUDES: hair, teeth, and nails
what is the muscular system consists of voluntary muscles, which control the movements of the skeleton and are under conscious control, AND involuntary muscles, which function to produce movements of organs.
what is the nervous system consists of the brain, the spinal cord, and the nerves
what is included in the CNS (central nervous system)? the brain and spinal cord
what is the peripheral nervous system (PNS) ? the nerves that carry information between the CNS and the PNS
what is the FUNCTION of the nervous system? communication, integration, and control of body functions, and recognition of stimuli
what is a stimuli? an agent that "stimulates" such as light, heat, pressure, and sound.
what makes up the endocrine system? glands that secret special chemicals called hormones
the circulatory system is aka what? the cardiovascular system
what makes up the circulatory system? the heart and the blood vessels
what are the 3 types of blood vessels? arteries veins capillaries
what is the function of an artery? to carry blood AWAY from the heart
what is the function of a vein? to carry blood BACK to the heart
what is the function of a capillary? to provide oxygen and nutrition to the cells
what is the function of the heart? to provide a pumping action to keep blood flowing throughout the circulatory system.
what is the function of the lymphatic system? to provide the fluid called lymph that surrounds the cells and serves to move fluid and certain large molecules from the cells to the circulatory
what does the lymphatic system consist of? lymph nodes, lymph vessels, the spleen, tonsils, and the thymus gland
what is the function of the respiratory system? to transfer oxygen from the air to the blood
what does the respiratory system consist of? breathing passages of the body; nose, mouth, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and the lungs
what is the function of the digestive system? to move and digest the food that we eat
what is contained in the digestive system? mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anal canal
what is the function of the urinary system? to eliminate the excess fluid and the waste products of cellular activity from the body
what is contained in the urinary system? kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra
what is the reproductive system? functions to provide survival of the human race,
what does the reproductive system consist of? male: scrotum, and penis, and internal testesvulva, vagina, and internally the eovaries female:
what is the function of the skeletal system? to provide a rigid frame work for the body
how many bones in the skeletal system? 206
what is contained in the skeletal system? 206 bones, cartilage, ligaments, and tendons