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management chapter 1

The History of Management Thought

Classical theories approach economic rationality: always act in your own economic best interest types of classical theories: bureaucracy, scientific
Classical theories - bureaucracy max weber, 1947, an ideal, intentionally rational, and efficient form of organization; based on principles of logic, order, and legitimate authority (hierarchy, chain of command); creates fairness and consistency
Classical theories - scientific FW Taylor 1911, all about efficiency, conducted time and motion studies (watched people work), lost workers their jobs which brought about department of labor regulations
Weber's Tenents of Bureaucracy 1.Formal authority derived from one's position 2.promotions based on performance 3. Authority/responsibility should be clearly specified 4. Hierarchy/clear reporting relationships 5. Managers must create rules, standards, and norms to get desired behavior
Flaws of Bureaucracy Still see favoritism, can be inefficient (too many levels, etc), sometimes rigid and inflexible
Why is Bureaucracy a Classical Approach? Clear rules (if you do "x", you get "y" as a reward) Promotions from hard work, economically rational on the organization's part because good performance is rewarded
Behavioral Theories Approach There are other factors that play into human decisions besides just acting in self interest
Behavioral theories-Mary Follett Authority should go with knowledge, whether it is up the line or down Workers should be able to exercise initiative Asked workers how they felt/what they wanted
Behavioral Theories-Hawthorne Studies Elton Mayo: 1924, measured affects of illumination on efficiency No matter what the lighting, the productivity of factory workers went up
Hawthorne Effect Worker's attitudes changed when they knew they were being watched; they performed better
Social Effects of the Hawthorne Studies Workers enjoyed the smaller/intimate settings; developed their own group norms (driven to meet productivity norms)-group norms eliminated rate busters (overachievers) and chisellers (those who brought the group down)
Behavioral Theories-McGregor's Theory X and Y 1960, workers will work based on how you treat them
McGregor's Theory X workers dislike work, lack ambition, irresponsible, resist change, prefer to be lead
McGregor's Theory Y workers are willing to work, self-control, accept responsibility, empower workers
Theory X and Theory Y Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Type X: if manager treats workers badly, they will be discouraged and lose purpose/productivity Type Y: opposite of Type X
Modern Management Approaches Quantitative Analysis, Qualitative Analysis, Contingency Thinking
Modern Management Approaches-Quantitative Analysis Collecting/analyzing data in order to make informed decisions, numeric values, analyze people's behavior and use data to predict future behavior -Hawthorne Effect is quantitative because of levels of illumination and productivity were measured
Modern Management Approaches-Qualitative Analysis no data or surveys, uses free-form open ended questions
Modern Management Approaches-Contingency Thinking There is not going to be one best way to solve a problem; solution will be based on the situation (based on employee attitudes, manager attitudes, and different variables
Created by: olma2612
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