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Ch.2

Psych. FINAL

QuestionAnswer
A statistical, inferential test that compares two means ANOVA
Measures based on systematic observation of people's actions, either in their normal environment or in a laboratory setting Behavioral measures
A study design in which a psychologist, often a therapist, observes one person over a long period of time Case Study
Variable whose influence on the dependent variable cannot be separated from the independent variable being examined Confounding Variable
A group of research participants who are treated in exactly the same manner as the experimental group, except that they do not receive the independent variable or treatment Control Group
A statistic that ranges from -1.0 to +1.0 and assesses the strength and direction of association between two variables Correlation coefficient
Studies that measure two or more variables and their relationship (correlation) to one another; not designed to show causation Correlation Designs
The explanation of the purposes of a study following data collection Debriefing
In an experiment, the outcome or response to the experimental manipulation Dependent Variable
Study designs in which the researcher defines a problem and variable of interest but makes no prediction and does not control or manipulate anything Descriptive Designs
Techniques that show what observations collected in research actually look like, by summarizing and describing data Descriptive Statistics
Studies in which neither the participants nor the researchers administering the treatment know who has been assigned to the experimental or control group Double-blind Studies
The rules governing the conduct of a person or group in general or in a specific situation-- more simply, standards of right and wrong ethics
A research design that includes independent and dependent variables and random assignments of participants to control and experimental groups or conditions Experiment
A group consisting of those participants who will receive the treatment or whatever is predicted to change behavior Experimental group
The number of times a particular score occurs in a set of data Frequency
A specific, informed, and testable prediction of the outcome of a particular set of conditions in a research design Hypothesis
A property that is manipulated by the experimenter under controlled conditions to determine whether it causes the predicted outcome of an experiment Independent variable
Allow us to test hypotheses and make an inference as to how likely the results of a study can be generalized to the greater population Inferential Statistics
Organizations that evaluate proposed research before it is conducted to make sure research involving humans does not cause undue harm or distress Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)
The arithmetic average of a series of numbers Mean
The tools and techniques used to assess thought or behavior are called Measures
The score that separates the lower half of scores from the upper half Median
Research technique for combining all research results on one question and drawing a conclusion Meta-analysis
A statistic that represents the most commonly occurring score or value Mode
A study in which the researcher unobtrusively observes and records behavior in the real world Naturalistic oberservation
Measures of bodily responses, such as blood pressure or heart rate, used to determine changes in psychological state Psychological Measures
A substance or treatment that appears identical to the actual treatment but lacks the active substance Placebo
The entire group a researcher is interested in Population
Claims presented as scientific that are not supported by evidence obtained by the scientific method Pseudoscience
Research method similar to an experimental design except that it makes use of naturally occurring groups rather than randomly assigning subjects to groups Quasi-experimental design
The method used to assign participants to different research conditions so that all participants have the same chance of being an any specific group Random assignment
The repetition of a study to confirm the results Replication
A research sample that accurately reflects the population of people one is studying Representative sample
Plans of action for how to conduct a scientific study Research design
Subsets of the population studied in a research project Samples
The Scientific Method: OPTIC: Observation, Prediction, Testing, Interpretation, Communication
Written or oral accounts of a person's thoughts, feelings, or actions Self-reports
Studies in which participants do now know the experimental condition (group) to which they have been assigned Single-Blind Study
The tendency toward favorable self-presentation that could lead to inaccurate self-reports Social desirability bias
A statistical measure of how much the scores in a sample vary around the mean Standard deviation
Collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of numerical data Statistics
A set of related assumptions from which scientists can make testable predictions Theory
A characteristic that changes or "varies", such as age, gender, weight, intelligence, anxiety, and extraversion Variable
Created by: shanncruz