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Final PSY 250

QuestionAnswer
Aggression Any behavior intended to harm another person who is motivated to avoid the harm. ▪ Antisocial ▪ Goal: damage interpersonal relationships. ▪ Sanctioned (e.g.,within social bounds) ▪ Prosocial (e.g., law enforcement)
What things aren’t aggression? 1.Not a thought...such as mentally rehearsing a murder. 2.Never accidental...always intentional. 3.Victim wants to avoid the harm. Aggression is a behavior and should be distinguished from feelings of anger
What are 2 types of aggression? 1. Hostile Aggression (reactive) 2. Instrumental Aggression (Proactive)
Whats hostile aggression? - ‘Hot’, impulsive, angry behavior that is motivated by a desire to harm someone. ▪ Affective, angry, reactive, retaliatory. 

What is Instrumental Aggression (Proactive)? “Cold”, premeditated, calculated harmful behavior that is a means to some practical or material end. ▪ Proactive.
What is Passive Aggression? 
Harming other by withholding a behavior
What is Active aggression? Harming others by performing a behavior.
What is violence? Aggression that has as its goal extreme physical harm. ▪ Injury/ Death. (homicide, aggravated assault, forcible rape, robbery) ▪ “All violent acts are aggressive, but not all aggressive acts are violent”
What is antisocial Behavior? Behavior that either damages interpersonal relationships or is culturally undesirable. ▪ Often “Antisocial” means “Aggressive”, but not all ▪ Littering?
Why are we aggressive: Social Animals? - Aggression=Conflict resolution, Social Dominance, Order - 6 Million years
Why are we aggressive: Culture Animals (us) - Morals, Courts of law, Justice, etc. - 4000Years
Where does aggression come from? Aggression comes from selfishness. ▪ Selfishness= historical survival (pre-culture) ▪ Aggression (culture)=Obsolete (on paper)
What are Instinct Theories? •“The tendency to aggression is an innate, independent, instinctual disposition in man” •Fighting is closely linked to mating, the aggressive instinct helps ensure that only the strongest pass on their genes. ▪ Freud
Who came up with instinct theories? Freud
Whats “Thanatos”? •Freudian destructive death instinct.
Whats the theory that aggression is caused by Nurture not NATURE? Bandora (1973).
 •People LEARN aggressive behavior the same way they learn any other social behavior: By watching.
What is Modeling? Observing and copying or imitating the behavior of others.
What is the Bo‐Bo Doll study? •Aggressive model vs. Non-­‐Aggressive vs. Non-­‐ Influential/Influential.
What are the results of the Bo-Bo Doll study? 1. If the model was rewarded: •Praise for hitting the Bobo 2. If the model was similar to the learner: •Sex/Race
 3. If the model was admired or close to the learner: •Parent/caregiver
In the Bo-Bo Doll study what happened if the model was:
Punished, Scolded, Passive to the clown, Ignored the clown, KIND to the clown? There was reinforcement
What is reinforcement? A major facilitator of aggression.
What do parents provide when it comes to aggression? Both reinforcement and a model. •Children whose parents punish them for fighting tend to be less aggressive at home but more aggressive away.
What is a Punishment? Consequence that weakens or suppresses a response •Removal of a reinforcing stimulus (negative)
 •Introduction of an aversive stimulus (positive)
Punishment vs. Reinforcement? Punishment: Introduces an aversive stimulus •Weakens a behavior Negative reinforcement: Removes an aversive stimulus •Strengthens a behavior
What happened in the Liebert & Baron (1972): Help vs. Hurt study? ▪ Children told they could either “help” another child out 
of view get a prize or ▪ Hurt another child by limiting their chances of getting a prize. ▪ 2 Groups: 
▪ A. Neutral
 ▪ B. Watches violent film 

What were the results of Liebert & Baron (1972) Help vs. Hurt study? Violent film group holds down “Hurt” button 3 times as often. 
▪ Film acts as “model”
What was the Kuo (1939) study about? ▪ Kittens raised with rats= 54% kill rats as adults ▪ Kittens raised in isolation=85% kill rats as adults •“Natural” course of learning changes and shapes aggressive patterns. •Conclusion: •“nonviolent” human being is the product of culture.
What fosters aggression nature or nurture? Both: (NATURE and nurture) •Learning and instinct are relevant •We learn how to be aggressive (i.e. when to be) and how to restrain aggression.
Conclusion of nature vs nurture topic on aggression? ▪ We don’t really need to Learn how to be aggressive (Natural), but we do need to learn how to control impulses (Culture).
Inner Causes of Aggression: what is the Frustration- Aggresion Hypothesis (Dollard, 1939)? “ a.The occurrence of aggressive behavior always presupposes the existence of frustration and b. the existence of frustration always leads to some form of aggression”
Frustration: blockage or interference of a personal goal. Degrees of frustration?
What are factors of frustration and aggression? 1.closer to the goal- more frustration they experience when they fail.
•12th in line and get cut vs. next in line2.Is the frustration from something arbitrary? ▪ If so, then experience MORE aggression.▪ Person cuts in front of you with crutches (meaning)
What are the hostile cognitive biases? Attributions we make for other’s behaviors have a strong influence on our OWN behavior. •You are more likely to be aggressive if you PERCIEVE another as aggressive. •Some people are more likely than others to filter information this way....
Hostile cognitive biases: Hostile Attribution Bias: •The tendency to perceive ambiguous actions by others as 
aggressive. ▪ Towards you
Hostile cognitive biases: Hostile Perception Bias: •The tendency to perceive social interactions in general as 
being aggressive
 ▪ Between others you are watching
Hostile cognitive biases: Hostile Expectation Bias: •The tendency to assume that people will react to potential 
conflicts with aggression. 
 ▪ Prediction of groups as a whole as they will respond to you
Why do children do not commit many violent crimes? ▪ Small ▪ Under heavy supervision ▪ Not aggressive?
Who commits many violent crimes? Young Adults commit the most violent crimes
What happened in the Richard Tremblay (2000) study on aggression? Observed toddlers at daycare. 25% of all toddler interactions involve aggressive acts (push, bite, stealing) Young adults under supervision? ▪ 3‐5%
What was the conclusion on Richard Tremblay (2000) study on aggression? Age and maturity teaches suppression of NATURAL aggressive behaviors.
What is the Fight or flight syndrome? •A response to stress that involves aggressing against other or running away. ▪ Male Rats

What is the Tend and befriend syndrome? •A response to stress that involves nurturing others and making friends. ▪ Female Rats
In all known societies who commits the most violent crimes? •Young men past the age of puberty commit most of the violent crimes. (Under 30) ▪ Robbery: 90% ▪ Rape: 98%
 ▪ Assault: 80% ▪ Murder: 91% Differences do decrease however when people are provoked.
What is relational Aggression? •Intentionally harming someone’s relationships with others. ▪ ....ladies.
What is an example of relational aggression? •Talking behind someone’s back, withdrawing affection to get what you want, excluding others. •Driven by a desire to maintain an exclusive relationship. ▪ Male aggression often geared towards strangers.
What is the #1 health risk in the USA? Domestic violence
Who attacks more men or women? Women attack their relationship partners slightly more often than men do (Archer, 2000). ▪ Underreported, minimal damage.
 ▪ #1 cause of injury to women age 15‐44
What are external causes of aggression? Weapons effect
What is the weapons effect? The increase in aggression that occurs as a result of the mere presence of a weapon.
How did Berkowitz (1967) test Weapons Effect? 2 Groups: ▪ 1. Shotgun and handgun in lab (from another experiment) ▪ 2. Tennis Ball and Glove ▪ Told to decide on levels of shock to administer to other participants . Results:
3 times higher shocks given by group 1.
What happened in the Mass media study on violence? Average Child:
 •40hrs/week of media absorption. •60% of all American broadcasting contains violence •15 year longitudinal study: 329 participants
What were the results of the Mass media study on violence? •Heavy viewers of violence between 1st-3rd grade= 3 times as likely to be convicted of criminal behaviors. ▪ 2 times as likely to abuse partners.
Does media affect violence? There is a correlation between higher violence levels and watching violent tv.
Is a correlation between violence and watching violent media convincing? No: But as with correlational research in general, there are alternative explanations ▪ Children who watch more TV in general more violent? ▪ Personality characteristics as a “third variable”? ▪ Parents? Teachers? Environment? Etc.?
What did Anderson & Dill (2000) find about media violence? That violent video games increase aggressive thoughts & behavior in the lab and are related to delinquency in the real world •More so for males and for people with a prior history of aggression
What are the Conclusions on Media Violence? Media violence is neither necessary nor sufficient to produce aggressive behavior 
 ▪ Parents, Models, Provocation. Aggressive behavior is multiply determined. By itself, media violence is unlikely to foster aggression.
What did Anderson et al.,( 1997) find out about aggression and environment? 45 year period. Murder and Assault higher during hotter years than during cooler. More murders in hot summer More murders in hot locations.
What are other factors that increase violence? •LOUD NOISES •Loud Noises +Provocation. ▪ Foul odors
 ▪ Secondhand smoke ▪ Air pollution
 ▪ Crowding
What is the correlation between chemical influence and aggression? Numerous chemicals have been shown to influence aggression. Some are natural and occur as a result of our environment. Others we add to increase the likelihood of aggression.
What did Sapolsky (1998) say about testosterone and aggression? Key Notion:▪ Remover the source of testosterone in species after species and levels of aggression typically plummet. Reinstate normal testosterone levels afterward with injections of synthetic testosterone, and aggression returns. “
What did Dabbs et al. (1995) find about testosterone? Violent male prisoners=higher level of testosterone
What is the relationship between alcohol and aggression? Correlation: 50% of people who commit violent crimes are intoxicated. However:
 •Causal research shows that alcohol INCREASES rather than CAUSES aggression. Factors that DO cause:
provocation, frustrations, cues, biology.
What are amino acids? - Glutamate: Excitatory - GABA: Inhibitory
What is alcohols affect on the brain? It is a CNS Depressant (GABA) How?? INHIBITORY EFFECT
Why does alcohol affect aggression? 1. Reduces inhibitions 2.Myopic effects of attention: •“Narrowing” attention to only salient features of situation 
•Most often “narrows” to provoking elements. 3.Decrease in self-awareness: Can’t focus on internal awareness, only on external situation.
How do humans try to reduce aggressive behavior? 1. Cops 2. Education 3. Prevention 4. Jail
What are the basics of interaction in groups? Performance Decision making
Social facilitation Performing better when others are present than when alone.
When Social facilitation occurs: Whether others are performing the same task, or whether the others are merely observers. In many species others than humans
 Ants dig faster in the presence of other ants.
What does being in the presence of others do? The presence of others sometimes enhances and sometimes impairs an individual’s performance.
Social Inhibition Performing more poorly when others are present than when alone. 
 Working as a group. Performing in front of others.
 Executing a task while being observed.
What is the Dominant Respose: Zajonc (1965): - Depends on the task. A task that requires a response that is well learned or innate. What do you really know how to do?
 The presence of OTHERS facilitates performance Complex/Novel/Poorly Learned=decrease in performance with the presence of othe
What is the roach maze study? 2 Mazes: Simple Complex
 Light turned on roaches (they run) 2 Conditions Other roaches watching Nobody watching
Evaluation Apprehension: Concerns about making a good impression on others. If task is complex:
 Pressure of evaluation may be harmful If task is simple:
 Greater effort (not for sure performance)
Facilitation vs. Inhibition: Distraction- Conflict Model: (Baron, 1986) Individual performance can be impaired if the individual focuses on the audience rather than on the task.
Facilitation vs. Inhibition: Distraction- Conflict Model: (Baron, 1986): 2 Basic Tendencies a. To pay attention to the audience b. To pay attention to the task. Easy tasks=little attention→enhancement Difficult task=Heavy attention→audience distracts.
According to Blascovich (1999): what do “others’ activate? 2 distinctive physiological responses: CHALLENGE(enhance task) vs. THREAT (danger)
What happens when participants performing unlearned vs. learned tasks? Unlearned (difficult) tasks in front of an audience showed “Threat” pattern of activation Well-learned (easy) showed a “Challenge” pattern.
What is Social Loafing? • An individuals contribution to a collective activity cannot be evaluated, individuals often work less hard than they would alone. o Social facilitation and inhibition occur when a persons performance is individually identifiable.
What was the study done by Max Ringlemann (1886) on the performance in front of others? Male student volunteers asked to pull as hard as they could on a rope. • 2 gorups: o 7 or 14 Men o Predictions: Larger the group, more force. Results: - Negative correlation between group size and individual effort level.
What does Social loafing depends on? • 1. How important the person believes his/her contribution is to group success o Will you be lost in the crowd? • 2. How much the person values group success o What is the INDIVIDUAL benefit if you have success
What is Pluralistic Ignorance? • Looking to others for cues about how to behave. • (While your looking to them) o Collective misinterpretation
What is the Bystander Effect? “Helping” a stranger in distress? The presence of other people makes it LESS likely that anyone will help a stranger in distress. • Why? • Presence of onlookers may make the individual assume that somebody else has already intervened.
What was the study by Latane & Darley (1970): Bystander effect? Fake experiment where an “emergency” occurs next to the lab. IV: Participants Alone Vs. In Group DV: Time to intervene Results: Alone-Help/ Together- Nope
What is the diffusion of responsibility? The presence of other people makes each individual feel less personally responsible.
What was the study on beautiful people? The Beautiful Victims: Good news People more likely to abandon“bystander effect” if victim is attractive.IV: Application left in Phone Booth Ex: Good looking picture •Control: Not Good lookingDV: Mailing the Application Results: Attractive gets mailed
How to reduce social loafing? Make each persons contribution identifiable: oWould you study more if you knew?•Provide rewards for high group productivityoHow many team members “loaf” in the super bowl? •Make task meaningful, complex, or interestingoEliminate any chance to drift…
What is Social compensation? Working especially hard to make up for lazy or incompetent teammates in a task. Occurs when others are performing inadequately, and the person cares about the quality of the group product
Behavior in the Presence of Others in summary: Whether social facilitation or social loafing occurs depends on 3 things? • 1. Whether individuals are identifiable • 2. Task complexity • 3. How much participants care about the outcome on the individual level).
What did Gustave Le Bon (19th century) say about Social Contagion? Its Highly Infectious o When one person does something, even if it would ordinarily be unacceptable to most of the others, everyone else tends to do it also. o Individual values, morals, ethics: GONE.
Whats deindividuation/mob mentality?  Loss of individuality
 Loss of accountability
 Reduction in self awareness
 Act on impulse
 Increased anti-social behavior.
What is Deindividuation? The anonymity of a group can lead people to do things they would not do. o Complete removal of personal identity. o Anonymity is the catalyst to behaviors that are NOT reflective of the individual if they were identifiable.
What was the study on deindividuation done by Diener et al. (1976) (trick or treat)? Stationed themselves in homes during trick-or-treat night.
2 Groups: • ½ children greeted and asked their names. • ½ given candy and not asked name. o Candy left out in front of the house in a very accessible bowl. Results: • Children who gave their names DID NOT EVER STEAL.
What was the study on deindividuation done by Mann (1981) (jumpers)? 21 instances of crowd demographics when someone was threating to jump off a building/bridge. Results: • Smaller crowd/ Daytime= Less “Jumps!” • Larger crowd/ Night= More “Jumps!”
What is the Recipe for De-individuation? •It increases whn individuals are anonymous nd as group size increase•Might create a special psychological state in which people are focused externally and unaware of own values•Heighten individual’s identification with the group and increase conformity.
How to stop deindividuation? Increase peoples self- awareness during group activities. • Large name tags, mirrors, cameras, bright lights and other factors which cause self-focus.
What is the relationship between competition and cooperation? Participants in lab studies on competition tend to compete, even when cooperation would be a more rewarding strategy.
How to study competition vs. Cooperation? Game Theory: • Method of studying decision making in situations of conflict and cooperation.
Whats the prisoners dilemma? Common Result: • Competition even when cooperation would lead to greater reward.
What is Gametheory? o Study of strategic decision making. o The study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent
What is the Road Map of the Trucking Game Krauss? You need to figure out how to make you get their quicker and people usually chose route which involved no cooperation.
What was the results of the: Road Map of the Trucking Game Krauss? Optimal Strategy: • Cooperation-Alternate use of gates Adopted Strategy:
 - Conflict at gates
 - Refusal to ‘retreat’
 - If retreat—Close their gate after -Take the long road to avoid conflict
Whats the prisoners dilemma game and goal and limits? Prisoners dilemma: Goal: Get the most $$ (for you) Limitations: NO communication
What is the Zero-Sum Game? • One person’s gain is another’s loss • Ex: poker Non-Zero-Sum Game • Pick a card…
What is nature vs. nurture result on Zero-Sum Game? NATURE? • Zero-Sum Nurture (social)? • -Non-Zero-Sum
Whats the prisoners dilemma (real life sit)? You and friend committed crime: DA knows but cant quite prove it.You-friend are in diff rooms.2 Alternatives:•A. Confess (You get lesser crime/ buddy fries)•B. Don’t confess (Neither get caught)Results: 1/3 of choices are cooperative. 2/3 are Competitive.
Determinants of Competition vs Cooperation Reward Structure • Is one persons gain anothers loss? • What happens when congress vetoes a bill Personal Values • Cooperator or Competitor? Independent/ Interdependent? Communication • Communication changes outcomes in both games.
Culture and Competition The United States has one of the most competitive cultures on earth. Home, at school, through the media, and through sports and games. USA:1/10-cooperation
 Mexican:7/10-Cooperation (got more)
Created by: kdas