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Music Exam 3


Sections of the orchestra woodwinds, brass, stings, and percussion
String Instruments violins, violas, cellos, double bass, and harp
Brass Instruments Trumpet, french horn, tuba, and trombone
Woodwind Instruments flute, clarinet, oboe, bassoon
Percussion Instruments Timpani, bass drum, snare drum, xylophone, tambourine, castanets and gong
Woodwind Section -made out of wood -blow into instrument to make sound
String Section -oldest & largest section -have strings and played with a bow
Brass Section -made out of metal -produces sound when player buzzes lips -
Pitched Percussion -definite pitch instruments
non-pitched Percussion -indefinite pitch instruments
Romantic Period -1825-1900 -rejected the enlightenment -human emotion as basis of art [extreme] -idealized individual over society -Supernatural and nature
Lied -Poem set to music -voice and piano -operatic vocal style Ex. Erlking -German -Man and piano
Song Cycle -Song Collections published and performed as a single work Ex. Ring on My Finger -woman's voice and piano -German
Character Piece -Instrumental work for piano Ex. Nocture No. 2 -strictly piano -happy sound
Program Music -Orchestral work -larger orchestra Ex. Fantastic Symphony
Fantastic Symphony -conceived as a musial description of a specific program -has 5 different sections
Idee fixe -uses a musical theme -fixed idea
musical nationalism -national opera -reflected the rise of nationalism in Europe
Rubato -Endless melody -no strict tempo Ex. Tristan und Isolde -younger woman
Bel Canto -beautiful singing and melodies -singing and symphony accompaniment Ex. La Boheme -Older and deeper sounding woman
Grand Opera -ultimate romantic genre -spectacular productions -combined all arts Ex. Tristan und Isolde and La Boheme
Franz Schubert -composer of the lied -1797-1829 Work: Erlking
Robert Schumann -1810-1856 -German Composer and writer Work: Ring on my finger
Frederic Chopin 1810-1849 -French-polish composer -wrote exclusively for the piano Works: Prelude in E minor and Nocture No.2
Hector Berlioz -1803-1869 -French composer and critic -composed for large ensembles Work: Fantastic Symphony
Richard Wagner -1813-1883 -German Composer -rejected italian opera -composed music, story, and lyrics -nordic mythology and themes -Rubato style: endless melody Work: Tristan und Isolde
Giuseppe Verdi -1813-1901 -National style
Giacomo Puccini -1858-1924 Verismo Style: realism Work: La Boheme
Modernism 1900-1960 -technology -reflected profound changes in Western culture in early 20th century -end of Eurocentrism -increased use of dissonance, no resolution
Impressionism -irregular phrases -avoidance of traditional harmonic progres ambiguity on form -unresolved dissonance -whole tone scales
Primitivism directness, exoticism, non-urban cultures
Expressionism -irregular, episodic, fragmentory form and structure -abrupt musical language -clashing dissonances -great emotional intensity -interest in the common man
Atonal Music -emancipation of dissonance -logical extension of historical trends Ex. Perriot Lunaire
12 tone/serial music -Schoenberg -organized 12 tones into a series to avoid creating a tonal center -pitch series
Claude Debussy -1862-1918 -impressionist composer -rebelled against german romanticism -used non-tonal scales Ex. Piano Prelude, Voiles
Igor Stravinsky -1882-1971 -born in russia worked in paris -collaborated with ballet russe Ex. Rite of Spring
Arnold Schoenberg -1874-1951 -austrian composer and teacher -created atonal music Ex. Pierrot Lunaire
Anton Webern -studied with schoenberg -extended serialsim beyond pitch -extremely concentrated and concise style
Charles Ives -1874-1954 -american original -self-taught pioneer -embraced american music: marches, hymns, etc. Ex. Three Places in New England -polytonal -bands all mixed together
Aaron Copland -1900-1990 -American Nationalism -First American composer to achieve international status -embraced nationalism in 1930s -used folk songs in his works Ex. Appalachian Spring
John Cage -1912-1992 -Pushed the envelope -avant-garde american composer -influenced by zen buddhism -studied with schoenberg -electronic music -prepared piano: weights on strings Ex. Perilous night
Duke Ellington -1899-1974 -composer, pianist, bandleader -approached jazz as concert music Ex. Sepia Panorama
Leonard Bernstein -1918-1990 -composer, conductor, pianist -1st American conductor to gain get worldwide acclaim Ex. West Side Story: Tonight
Created by: taydizzle25