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PSYC100 Exam 3 Part2

CH 14-15

psychopaathology sickness or disorder of the mind
disorder vs difficult challenge when a psychological problem disrupts a person's life and causes significant distress over a long period, the problem is considered a disorder
behavior of psychopathology 1) does the person act in a way that deviates from cultural norms and acceptable behavior? 2)is the behavior maladaptive? that is, does does the behavior interfere with the perons' ability to respond appropriately in different situations?
behavior of psychopathology 3)is the behavior self-destrictuve, does it cause the individual personal distress, or does it threaten other people in the community?
Kraeplin identified mental disorders on the basis of groups of symptoms that occur together. classification system for mental disorders
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders categorizing mental disorders systematically. standard in psychology and psychiatry.
requirements of mental disorders patient must have: 1)major clinical disorders 2)mental retardation 3)medical condition 4)psychosocial problems 5)global or overall assessment
structured interviews questions asked in the same order each time
diathesis underlying vulnerability or predisposiiton
social phobia fear of being negatively evaluated by others
social anxiety disorder fears of public speaking, speaking up in class, meeting new people, and eating in front of others.
specific phobias fear of particular objects or situations
generalized anxiety disorder a diffuse state of constant anxiety not associated with any specific object or event
post-traumatic stress disorder a mental disorder that involves frequent nightmares, intrusive thoughts, and flashbacks related to an earlier trauma
panic disorder an anxiety disorder that consists of sudden, overwhelming attacks of terror
agoraphobia an anxiety disorder marked by fear of being in situations in which escape may be difficult or impossible
obsessive-compulsive disorder an anxiety disorder characterized by frequent intrusive thoughts and compulsive actions
etiology of OCD genetic, control neurotransmitter
mood disorders (affective disorders) extreme emotions. two kinds. depressive disorders: persistent and pervasive feelings of sadness bipolar disorders: radical fluctuations in mood
major depression a disorder characterized by sever negative moods or a lack of interest in normally pleasurable activities
dysthymia a form of depression that is not severe enough to be diagnosed as major depression
bipolar disorder a mood disorder characterized by alternating periods of depression and mania
manic episodes characterized by elevated mood, increased activity, diminished need for sleep, grandiose ideas, racing thoughts, and extreme distractibility.
hypomanic episodes characterized by heightened creativity and productivity. can be extremely pleasurable and rewarding.
SAD (seasonal affective disorders) periods of depression that correspond to the shorter days of winter in northern latitudes
learned helplessness a cognitive model of depression in which people feel unable to control events in their lives
dissociative identity disorder (DID) the occurrence of two or more distinct identities in the same individual
schizophrenia a psychological disorder characterized by a split between thought and emotion; alterations in thoughts, in perceptions, or in consciousness.
positive symptoms excesses; additional. eg. delusions
negative symptoms deficits in functioning eg. avoid eye contact, no emotions
delusions false beliefs based on incorrect inferences about reality
hallucinations false sensory perceptions that are experienced without a external source
loosening of associations a speech pattern among some people with schizophrenia in which their thoughts are disorganized or meaningless
borderline personality disorder a personality disorder characterized by disturbances in identity, in affect, and in impulse control
antisocial personality disorder a personality disorder marked by a lack of empathy and remorse
autistic disorder a developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction, by impaired communication, and by restricted interest
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) a disorder characterized by restlessness, inattentiveness, and impulsivity
psychotherapy the generic name given to formal psychological treatment
biological therapies treatment based on medical approaches to illness and to disease
One factor known to affect the outcome of therapy is... the relationship b/w the therapist and the client
free association the client would say whatever came to mind and the therapist would look for signs of unconscious conflicts, especially where the client appeared resistant to discussing certain topics
dream analysis the therapist would interpret the hidden meaning of the client's dreams
insight the goal of psychoanalysis; a patient's awareness of his/her own unconscious psychological processes and how these processes affect daily functioning
psychodynamic therapy therapist aims to help a patient examine the patient's needs, defenses, and motives as a way of understanding why the patient is distressed. Ex: 'talking therapy'
client-centered therapy humanistic therapy developed by Carl Rogers; empathic approach to therapy; encourages people to fulfill their individual potentials for personal growth through greater self-understanding
behavior therapy treatment based on the premise that behavior is learned and therefore can be unlearned through the use of classical and operant conditioning
cognitive therapy treatment based on the idea that distorted thoughts produce maladaptive behaviors and emotions; treatment strategies attempt to modify these though patterns. Aaron Beck
cognitive restructuring a therapy that strives to help patients recognize maladaptive thought patterns and replace them with ways of viewing the world that are more in tune with reality
cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) a therapy that incorporates techniques from cognitive therapy and behavior therapy to correct faulty thinking and change maladaptive behaviors
rational-emotive therapy Albert Ellis; through this approach, a therapist acts as a teacher, explaining the client's errors in thinking and demonstrating more-adaptive ways to think and behave
psychotropic medications drugs that affect mental processes; changes brain neurochemistry
anti-anxiety drugs (aka tranquilizers) a class of psychotropic medications used for the treatment of anxiety; short-term use
antidepressants a class of psychotropic medications used for the treatment of depression. most recent is selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs): used often to treat people who are sad/low self-esteem but not clinically depressed
antipsychotics a class of psychotropic medications used for the treatment of schizophrenia and other disorders that involve psychosis
antipsychotics effects block effects of dopamine; side effects can be irreversible
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) a procedure that involves administering a strong electrical current to the patient's brain to produce a seizure; it is effective for some cases of severe depression
chlorpromazine drug - acts as a major tranquilizer; reduces anxiety, sedates w/o inducing sleep, and decreases the severity and frequency of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia
haloperidol chemically different than chlorpromazine and less sedating effects; revolutionized as a treatment of schizophrenia
personality disorder treatment? notoriously difficult to treat; no treatment approach for this disorder
Created by: f.sarwar92