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EDAD 5331-Powers

Need hierarchy His theory posits a a basic innate or inborn set of human NEEDs arranged in a HIERARCHical order.
motivators Hence, motivation-hygiene theory postulates that the gratification of certain needs, called___, increases satisfaction, but when the MOTIVATORS are not gratified, only minimal dissatisfaction results.
achievement motivation theory David C. McClelland's ____is commonly called need ACHIEVEMENT or n-ACHIEVEMENT theory.
goal intensity ___is the EFFORT required to form the GOAL, the IMPORTANCE a person assigns the GOAL, and the COMMITMENT to the GOAL.
goal setting theory Actually,___did not begin as a THEORY, but was one of those cases in which an interesting research triggered the search for an explanation, and hence the significance of GOAL-SETTING THEORY.
beliefs _____are general understandings or generalizations about the world; they are what individuals HOLD TO BE TRUE.
dimensions of causality Weiner-argues that most of the causes to which individuals attribute their successes and failures can be characterized in terms of three____ _____ ____- locus, stability, and responsibility.
incremental view of ability An_____, on the other hand, assumes that ability is unstable and controllable - an expanding reservoir of knowledge and skills.
expectancy theory ___rests on two fundamental premises.
instrumentality ____is the Perceived Probability that good Performance will be NOTEiced and rewarded.
self-efficacy ____is a person's judgment about his or her capability to organize and execute a course of action that is required to attain a certain level of performance.
motivation ____is generally defined as an internal state that stimulates,directs,and maintains behavior.
intrinsic motivation MOTIVATION that comes from factors such as INTerest and curiosity is called ____
organizational culture Our general definition of______is a system of shared orientations that hold the unit together and give it a distinctive identity.
Tacit assumptions _____are abstract premises about the nature of human relationships, human nature, Truth, reality, and environment.
Myths _____are stories that communicate an unquestioned belief that cannot be demonstrated by the facts.
Icons ____ are physical artifacts that are used to communicate culture (logos, mottoes and trophies).
Mythmakers _____are storytellers who are so effective in informal communication that they create organizational myths.
faculty trust Thus,________is the teachers' willingness to be vulnerable to another party based on the confidence that the latter party is benevolent, reliable, competent, honest, and open.
humanistic culture The model for the ______is the school conceived of as an educational community in which students learn through cooperative interaction and experience.
school climate More specifically,_____is a relatively enduring quality of the SCHOOL environment that is experienced by participants, affects their behavior, and is based on their collective perceptions of behavior in SCHOOLs.
organizational health Another frame for viewing the climate of the school is its____
healthy school The_____is protected from unreasonable community and parental pressures.
growth-centered strategy A______simply involves the acceptance of a set of ASSumptions about the development of school personnel and the use of these ASSumptions as the basis for administrative decision-making.
power The classic definition of is the ability to get others to do what you want them to do, or as Weber defines it, "the probability that one actor within a social relationship will be in a position to carry out his own WILL despite resistance."
charismatic authority ______rests on devotion to an extraordinary individual who is leader by virtue of personal trust or exemplaryy qualities.
legal authority _______is based on enacted laws that can be changed by formally correct procedures.
formal authority _______is VESTed in the organization and is legally established in positions, rules, and regulations.
imformal authority _______is still another source of legitimate control stemming from the personal behavior and attributes of individuals.
coercive power _______is an administrator's ability to influence subordinates by punishing them for undesirable behavior.
referent power _______is an administrator's ability to influence behavior based on subordinates; liking the identification with the administrator.
empowerment _____is the process by which administrators share power and help others use it in constructive ways to make decisions affecting themselves and their work.
system of ideology The______is the informal agreements among teachers about the school and its relationships to other groups.
system of politics The______is the network of organizational POLITICS, which lacks the legitimacy of the other three SYSTEMs of power.
Politics ______is "individual or group behavior that is informal, ostensibly parochial, typically divisive, and above all, in the technical sense, illegitimate - sanctioned neither by formal authority, accepted ideology, nor -certified expertise".
dominated external coalition A________is composed of one sole, powerful influencer or a set of external influencers acting in concert.
passive external coalition A_______is reached when the number of outside groups of external influencers continues to increase to the point where the power of each is diffuse and limited.
bureaucratic internal coalition In a________, power is also concentrated in the formal system of authority, but here its focus is on bureaucratic controls- rules, regulations, and procedures.
professional internal coalition In a__________, the system of expertise dominates the organization.
ingratiating _______is a tactic used to gain the goodwill of another through doing favors, being attentive, and giving favors.
Declaritive knowledge ______is "knowledge that can be declared, usually in words, through lectures, books, writing, verbal exchange, Braille, sign language, mathematical notation, and so on.
Sensory memory ________ _______is a holding system that maintains stimuli briefly so that perceptual analysis can occur.
Long-term memory _______stores huge amounts of information for long periods of time. Information may be coded verbally or visually or both.
chunking A strategy of_____can be used to overcome the limited capacity of working memory.
First-wave constructivism Some educational and developmental psychologists have referred to Piaget's kind of constructivism as "______" or "solo" constructivism, with its emphasis on individual meaning-making.
Situated learning ____ ____emphasizes that the real world is not like studying in school.
Division of labor and specialization According to Weber, ____ and_____mean "the regular activities required for the purposes of bureaucratically governed structure are distributed in a fixed way as official duties.
Rules and regulations Weber asserts that every bureaucracy has a system of ______ ___, a consistent system of abstract rules which have normally been intetionally established.
Ideal type Although Weber's conception of bureaucracy is an ____ that may or may not be found in the real world, it does highlight or emphasize basic tendencies of actual organizations.
Representative rules On the other hand,_____ are initiated and supported by both workers and administrators.
Authoritarian structure An __________ emphasizes bureaucratic authority at the expense of professional consideration.
Chaotic structure Finally, a ________has a low degree of bureaucratization and professionalization; therefore confusion and conflict typify day-to-day operations.
Hindering school structure In contrast, a ______is a hierarchy that impedes and a system of rules d regulations that is coercive.
Mutual adjustment _________ is coordination through the simple process of informal communication.
Standardization of skills _____ is a coordination mechanism that provides indirect control of work.
technostructure The _______is the administrative component charged with the responsibility of planning.
Machine bureaucracy An organization that is fine-tuned and standardized to run as an integrated, regulated machine is called a _______
Simple bureaucracy The ______ has the basic characteristics of both a simple structure and a machine bureaucracy: it is highly centralized and highly bureaucratic, but it has a relatively flat administrative structure .
Loose coupling perspective Analyses such as these are of the ______and are useful additions to standard bureaucratic theory.
Logic of confidence They claim that educators typically "decouple" their organizational structure from instructional activities and outcomes and RESORT to a ____ _ _____.
Information management _____is a tactic individuals use to control others or build their own status.
Coalition building ______is the process of individuals banding together to achieve common goals.
Increasing indispensability ____is a tactic by which individuals or units make themselves necessary to the organization.
Power-building games _____are used by participants to build a power base.
Change games _____are designed to alter the organization or its practices.
Conflict-management styles Kenneth Thomas provides a useful typology for examining five_____
Information perspective In the ____, the external environment is a source of information that decision makers use in maintaining or changing the internal structures and processes of their organizations.
Resource-dependence perspective In contrast to the information perspective, the views the environment as a place to gain scarce resources for the task and technical processes of the organization.
dependence _____is defined both by the extent of need for a research and its availability in the environment.
buffering uses structures and processes to insulate or surround internal activities and absorb environmental disturbances.
Boundary spanning ____creates internal roles to cross organizational boundaries and to link schools with elements in the external environment.
Institutional perspective Moreover, the____has become a leading approach to understanding organizations and their environments.
Rationalized myths ______, then, are rules specifying procedures to accomplish an outcome on the basis of beliefs that are assumed to be true or are taken for granted.
Imitative conformity ____results from adopting standard responses from other sources to reduce uncertainty.
decoupling _____is intentionally neglecting to provide adequate control of work processes.
Competitive market ____means that people choose the school and type of education that they think best meet their educational needs.
Classical market The_____is an ideal (a normative model), rather than a description of how most decision makers function.
Administrative model Herbert Simon was the first to introduce the _______of decision making to provide a more accurate description of the way administrators both do and should make organizational decisions.
satisficing The basic approach is_____- that is, finding a satisfactory solution rather than the best one.
Generic decisions ______arise from established principles, policies, or rules.
Unique decisions _______, however, are probably creative decisions that require going beyond established procedures for a solution; in fact, they may require a modification of the organizational structure.
Problemistic search The SEARCH for alternatives to solve a particular organizational PROBLEM is called____
availability heuristic is the tendency for decision makers to base their judgments on information already available to them
A hypothesis CONJECTURAL
standardization breaking tasks into components
Span of control number of workers supervised directly
Goals desired end (zones)
Formalization codification
The naturalsystems perspective rational-systems perspective
Informal organization imformal leaders, informal norms
The open-systems perspective unrealistic...assumption...isolated...external...(vowels)
Bureaucratic roles positions, offices, organization
Cognition mental
learning organizations Schools more than any other ORGANIZATION
learning Broad sense (like learning Number Sense for hussies)
negative reinforcement eliminating (subtracting) stimulus
direct punishment TYPE I - suppress behavior
Cueing antecedent stimulus prior to
Mastery learning MASTER ANY LEARNING
General knowledge GENERAL KNOWLEDGE
Created by: bbox