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Pre-AP English

Pre-AP English - Syntax - the art of the sentence

Declarative sentence makes a statement The assignment is due tomorrow.
Imperative sentence gives a command Hand it in now. Stop.
Interrogative sentence asks a question Do you know the man?
Exclamatory sentence makes an exclamation The monster is attacking!
Telegraphic sentence shorter than 5 words “And the war came.” or "Conflict subsides."
Long and Involved sentence thirty words or more in length After many useless attempts, we went back to the car and left the city by a road lined with cypresses but without any signs, and an old woman tending geese told us with precision where the castle was located.
Simple sentence contains 1 independent clauses The actors and the musicians bowed to the audience.
Compound-complex sentence contains 2 or more independent clauses and one or more dependent (subordinate) clauses The singer bowed while the audience applauded, but she sang no encores.
Loose sentence main clause comes first followed by dependent gramitical units James slowly rose from his seat with a sly smile, determined to show the class that he could for once, answer the instructor's question.
Periodic sentence main clause is held until the end Delighted by James's resolve, the class and the instructor burst into applause.
Hypotactic sentence connecting words between clauses or sentences, showing the logical or other relationships between them I am tired because I am hot. We're bored because we are in English class.
Paratactic sentence simply juxtaposes clauses or sentences I am tired: it is hot. I am tired: it is first period. I am hungry: I skipped breakfast.
Juxtaposition unassociated ideas, words, or phrases are places next to one another (poetic or rhetorical device), form of contrast The magnificence of the destruction was cast upon the serene faces. It was a beautiful disaster.
Antithesis parallels in sharp contrast I consider it nothing less than a question of freedom or slavery. It's a matter of life and death. I am neither tall nor small.
Onomatopoeia a word or a grouping of words that imitates the sound it is describing. Like meow, bang, or growl. The sandbag fell to the floor with a loud thud.
Rhetorical question a question that expects no answer, used for effect, emphasis, or provocation How many times do I have to tell you to stop walking into the house with mud on your shoes? Are you kidding me?
Asyndeton absence of conjunctions Alexander and the terrible, horrible, no good, very bad day.
Polysyndeton too many conjunctions When you are old and gray and full of sleep, and nodding by the fire, takedown this book.
Ellipsis indicate words or ideas left out using 3 a row of three full stops (...) "As Aureliano Buendia...he remembered when his father..."
Anaphora repitition device where same expression is repeated at the beginning of 2 or more lines, clauses, or sentences As I ebb'd with the ocean of life, As I wended the shores I know, As I walked where the ripples continually wash...
Epistrophe repetition device in which the same word(s) or expression is repeated at the end of lines. For truth is one, and right is ever one.
Inversion putting verb before the subject or object before the subject Not a single word did she say. On no account should you be absent from your seminars.
Antimetabole fancy term for inversion, purpose is more poetic, creates rhythm Nor fierce Othello in so loud a strain, Roar d'for the handkerchief that cans'd him pain. In which a great goose feather grew, Of things that I never knew.
Appositive renames subject Ms. Mc-Sully, your teacher, dances like Michael Jackson, the pop star. Early that day, August 7th, I went to the zoo.
Rhetorical shift words like but, yet, now and then often indicate a change in tone, mood, effect, or meaning The dog was hungry, yet now he is stuffed.
Parenthesis explanatory remark thrown into the body of a statement, separated by commas, dashes or brackets (all called parenthesis) A dog (not a cat) is an animal that barks. Karl, a great singer, was not a good dancer.
Compound sentence Contains 2 independent clauses joined by a coordinate conjunction, or by a semicolon. The singer bowed to the audience, but she sang no encores.
Created by: crescenti