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OPERATIONAL MANAGMEN

CH 9 & 10

QuestionAnswer
motivation Psychological forces that determine the direction of a person’s behavior in an organization, a person’s level of effort,and a person’s level of persistence.
intrinsically motivated behavior Behavior that is performed for its own sake.
extrinsically motivated behavior Behavior that is performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishment.
expectancy theory The theory that motivation will be high when workers believe that high levels of effort lead to high performance and high performance leads to the attainment of desired outcomes.
expectancy In expectancy theory, a perception about the extent to which effort results in a certain level of performance.
instrumentality In expectancy theory, a perception about the extent to which performance results in the attainment of outcomes.
valence In expectancy theory, how desirable each of the outcomes available from a job or organization is to a person.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs An arrangement of five basic needs that, according to Maslow, motivate behavior. Maslow proposed that the lowest level of unmet needs is the prime motivator and that only one level of needs is motivational at a time.
Maslow’s 5 hierarchy of needs Self-actualization needs Esteem needs Belonging needs safety needs physiological needs
Herzberg’s motivator-hygiene theory A need theory that distinguishes between motivator needs (related to the nature of the work itself) and hygiene needs (related to the physical and psychological context in which the work is performed)
equity theory A theory of motivation that focuses on people’s perceptions of the fairness of their work outcomes relative to their work inputs.
goal setting theory A theory of motivation that focuses on people’s perceptions of the fairness of their work outcomes relative to their work inputs.
learning theories Theories that focus on increasing employee motivation and performance by linking the outcomes that employees receive to the performance of desired behaviors and the attainment of goals.
operant conditioning theory The theory that people learn to perform behaviors that lead to desired consequences and learn not to perform behaviors that lead to undesired consequences.
extinction Curtailing the performance of dysfunctional behaviors by eliminating whatever is reinforcing them.
social learning theory A theory that takes into account how learning and motivation are influenced by people’s thoughts and beliefs and their observations of other people’s behavior.
pygmalion effect the greater the expectation placed upon people the better they perform
douglas mcgregor came up with theory x and theory y managers
theory x managers managers who think people do not want to work and throwing money at them will not help. uses coercion and control to get job done(micro-manager)
Theory y managers manger who thinks people are unique and can manage themselves.
self fulfilling prophecy if you take on a task and you know you will do well you will do well
MBO management by objective
locke social scientist, must establish hard but obtainable objectives
bf skinner reinforcement theory
reinforcement theory need feed back on how you did on the job completed
victor vroom expectancy theory
j stacy adams equity theory
equity theory inputs should equal outputs, people want to be treated fairly
leadership The process by which an individual exerts influence over other people and inspires, motivates, and directs their activities to help achieve group or organizational goals.
servant leader A leader who has a strong desire to serve and work for the benefit of others.
legitimate power The authority that a manager has by virtue of his or her position in an organization’s hierarchy.
reward power The ability of a manager to give or withhold tangible and intangible rewards.
expert power Power that is based on the special knowledge, skills, and expertise that a leader possesses
referent power Power that comes from subordinates’ and coworkers’ respect, admiration, and loyalty.
the big five extrovert, flexibility, stability, intelligence, confidence
emotional intelegence self awareness, self control, social awareness, social skills
impoverished leader -productivity -employees
authority/compliance leader +productivity -employees
country club leader -productivity +employees
situational leadership based on the readiness of followers
telling situational leadership very limited maturity of followers
selling situational leadership LOW TO moderate readiness of followers
participating situational leadership moderate to high readiness of followers
delegating situational leadership high readiness of flowllowers
transformational leadership Leadership that makes subordinates aware of the importance of their jobs and performance to the organization and aware of their own needs for personal growth and that motivates subordinates to work for the good of the organization.
charismatic leadership An enthusiastic, self-confident leader who is able to clearly communicate his or her vision of how good things could be.
Created by: micledelving
 

 



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