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Psych Final Ch 4

Ch 4

Central nervous system (CNS) the largest part of the nervous system, made up of the brain and the spinal cord
Spinal Cord a collection of neurons and supportive tissue running from the base of the brain down the center of the back
Peripheral nervous system (PNS) all portions of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord; includes sensory and motor nerves; handles the central nervous system’s input and output
Sensory nerves nerves that ell if something is painful, smooth, rough, etc.
Motor nerves neurons located in the central nervous system that project their axons outside the CNS and directly or indirectly control muscles
Autonomic nervous system regulates glands, blood vessels, internal organs
Sympathetic nervous system mobilizes body for action, energy output
Parasympathetic nervous system conserves energy, maintains quiet state
Structure of a neuron the brain’s communication specialists, transmitting information to, from, and within the central nervous system
Dendrites receive information from other neurons and transmit toward the cell body
Cell body keeps neurons alive and determines whether it will fire
Axon extending fiber that conducts impulses away from the cell body and transmits to other cells
Synaptic cleft the space between the cell body and axon
Synapse where the neuron is transmitted
Action potential the lay a central role in cell-to-cell communication
Neurotransmitter chemical released by a transmitting neuron at the synapse and capable of affecting the activity of a receiving neuron
Plasticity the brain’s ability to change and adapt in response to experience—for example, by reorganizing or growing new neural connections
Endorphins proteins that, when released, cause a sense of well-being
Hormones regulate growth, metabolism, sexual development, behavior, and other functions
Melatonin regulate daily biological rhythms
Adrenal hormones involved in emotions and stress; cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine
Sex Hormones regulate development and functioning of reproductive organs; androgens, estrogens, and progesterone
Oxytocin a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland, that simulates uterine contractions during childbirth, facilitates the ejection of milk during nursing, and seems to promote, in both sexes, attachment and trust in relationships
Vasopressin hormone responsible for regulating the body’s retention of water by acting to increase water absorption in the collecting ducts of the kidney nephron
Cortisol a steroid hormone that is released in response to stress and a low level of blood glucocorticoids; it’s used to increase blood sugar, suppress the immune system, and aid in fat, protein and carbohydrate metabolism
Epinephrine also known as adrenaline, is a hormone in the body
Norepinephrine a hormone and a neurotransmitter; it acts as a neurotransmitter released from sympathetic neurons affecting the heart. It increases the rate of contractions
Structures of the human brain (all as discussed in textbook/ lecture) Currently undefined
Hemispheres of the brain Currently Undefined
Corpus callosum millions of myelinated axons connecting the brain’s hemispheres; provides a pathway for communication; if surgically severed to treat epilepsy, hemispheres cannot communicate directly
Lateralization specialization of the two cerebral hemispheres for particular operations
Split brain surgery a procedure which has shown that nearly all right-handed and the majority of left-handed individuals process language mainly in the left hemisphere
Created by: lygordon
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