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Science Chapter 4

Elements and the Periodic Table

atom the smallest particle of an element
electrons the negatively charged particles of an atom
nucleus a tiny region in the center of an atom
protons the positively charged particles in the nucleus of an atom
neutrons the electrically neutral particle of an atom
atomic number the unique number of protons in the nucleus of an atom that helps identify the element
isotopes atoms with the same number of protons and a difference number of neutrons
mass number the sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom, helps identify isotopes
Mendeleev Russian scientist that discovered a set of patterns that applied to all the elements
First Periodic Table arranged in order of increasing atomic mass
atomic mass the average mass of all the isotopes of an element
periods horizontal rows on the Period Table
groups the 18 vertical columns, consist of elements with similar characteristics
chemical symbol one or two letter abbreviation of an element's name
physical properties of metal ductility, conductivity, malleability, shininess
reactivity the ease and speed with which elements combine and react with other elements and compounds
nonmetals elements that lack most of the properties of a metal
metalloids has some characteristics of metals and some of nonmetals
semiconductors substances that can conduct electricity under some conditions but not under others