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Chem Mod 7

Apologia Chemistry Module 7

Atomic number How many protons (and therefore electrons) are in an atom
Isotopes Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
Mass number The total number of protons and neutrons in an atom (e.g. ¹²C)
"Plum pudding" model of an atom Positively charged "pudding" with electron "plums" scattered throughout
Planetary (Rutherford's) model of an atom Protons in the center (nucleus) with electrons orbiting about
Physical constant A measurable quantity in nature that does not change
Hertz (Hz) 1/second
Particle/Wave Duality Theory The theory that sometimes light sometimes behaves as a particle and sometimes behaves as a wave
Wavelength The distance between the crests (or troughs) of a wave
Amplitude A measure of the height of the crests or the depths of the troughs on a wave
Frequency formula f = c/λ where f = frequency (Hz) c = the speed of light (m/s) λ = wavelength (m)
Speed of light 3.0 x 10⁸ m/s
Nano 10⁻⁹
As a light wave's frequency increases, its energy ... increases
Relationship between energy and frequency E = h⋅f where E = energy (Joules) f = frequency h = 6.63 x 10⁻³⁴ J/Hz (Planck's constant)
Quantum mechanical model Electrons orbit the nucleus in clouds (orbitals). Each orbital can hold two electrons
s orbital - spherical - 1s, 2s, 3s, etc.
p orbital - dumb-bell shaped - 2p, 3p, etc. - each energy level has 3 different p orbitals (x, y, z)
d orbital - complex shape - 3d, 4d, etc. - 5 different d orbitals for each energy level
In the periodic table, the row tells you ... ... what energy level the last electron is in
In the periodic table, the first two columns have their last electron ... ... in an s orbital (including He)
In the periodic table, the middle 10 columns have their last electron ... ... in a d orbital (energy level is ONE LESS than the row)
In the periodic table, the last 6 columns have their last electron ... ... in a p orbital
Created by: thomas.macri