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Physics 2 Unit 4


Name of the first image intensification screen Patterson CB2
Patterson CB2 screens were composed of: zinc cadmium sulfide
Patterson CB2 screens emitted what kind of light? low yellowish/green light
Reasons for improving the image intensification: low bightness levels of the image low contrast of image only view one person at a time high radiation exposure to the PT dependence of rod vision work in total darkness
Light enters through which part of the eye? lens
-membrane lining the inside surface of the eye retina
two types of cells contained in the retina rods, cones
Cones are used for what kind of vision? day vision
rods are used for what kind of vision? night vision
- ablility to discriminate small images visual acuity
Cones discriminate btwn contrast levels as low as 2%
- an electronic device which converts instantaneously, in several steps, an xray image pattern into a corresponding visible light pattern of significantly higher energy per sq cm of viewing screen image intensification
Input screen takes _____ and emits _____ xray photons ; light photons
What composes an input screen? cesium iodide
Photocathode takes ____ and emits ____ light photons ( from input) ; electrons
What is considered the most ineffecient part of the image intensifier unit? the photocathe bc it takes alot of light photons to emit an electron
Output phosphor converts ____ to _____ electrons ; visible light image
What surronds the output phosphor? anode
What is the purpose of the electrostatic lens? helps focus the electrons onto the output phosphor
Increase the kinetic energy = _____ image brighter
How does image intensify? electronic intensification, minification
- the term given to the intensity of light given off at the output phosphor in relation to the light given off by a Patterson CB-2 image amplifier gain
- the measurement based on the comparison of light given off at the output phosphor in relation with the light given off by the input phosphor brightness gain
- the random fluctuation of brightness over a given area caused by the number of light photons available at any given instant of time for that area scintillation
- the ability of an amplifier to differentiate very small objects resolution
- consists of one opaque bar and one equally wide opening on a test pattern line pairs
- when electrons leave the photo emissive layer of the input phosphor and get pulled away from their path by outside magnetic forces image rotation
- a metallic ring constructed of an alloy that has the same temp coeefficient as that of the glass envelope and is used as a cathode connection / helps keep the glass from breaking covar ring
- the ability to differentiate borders contrast
- the relationship btwn contrast and resolution contrast sensitivity
- refers to focusing of the electrons leaving the photocathode focusing
- photoelectrons from the photocathode meet in the center and ionize some gas molecules which causes an area on the output phosphor to be lacking electrons and shows up as bright spots gas spots
- instruments used to remove the gas spots gettering devices
- loss of light at the periphery of the image vignitting
The smaller the field of view ( FOV) , the more ______ the image becomes magnified
Increasing magnification, will have what effect on pt dose? increases
- varies the exposure factors according to the changes in the part examined Automatic brightness control
- varies the electronic signal as needed automatic gain control
- compensates for part thickness changes as the pt is moved during the exam automatic exposure control
Where is the brightness control knob located? on the fluoro tower
kV rec: gallbladder 65-75
kV rec: nephrostogram 70-80
kV rec: myelogram 70-80
kV rec: BE/Air-contrast 80-90
kV rec: Upper GI 100-110
kV rec: Small Bowel 110-120
kV rec: Barium Enema 110-120
What should the fluoro timer be set for? 5 min
Brightness is usually adjusted so that the darkest area on the monitor is ______ black
When contrast is increased at the TV monitor, the amt of visible background noise on the monitor ______. increases
Adjust _____ first, then _____ contrast ; brightness
To reduce unwanted magnification, the fluoro tower should be? kept as close to the pt as possible
What is the source-to-table distance 38 cm on stationary 30 cm on mobile
Increasing the distance _____ pt dose decreases
Filtration must be at least ____ mm AL 2.5
Bucky slot cover must be at least ____ Pb equ. 0.25
protective curtain must be at least ____pB equ. and must measure _______ cm 0.25 ; 45 x 45
At the table top, xray intensity should not exceed....... 2.1 R / min for each mA operation at 80 kVp
What is the max intensity during fluoro? 10 R / min
For every milliampere of fluoroscopic tech, one can assume a tabletop intensity of 2 rad / min
What is the most commonly used camera tubes? vidicon
in a TV camera, what serves as the cathode? electron gun
in a TV camera, what serves as the anode? target assembly
an electron beam forms a light image on the TV screen by producing a .... raster pattern
the electron beam starts in the upper-left corner of the screen and moves to the upper right corner to produce active trace
the electron beam is then blanked and returns to the left side of the screen.... horizontal retrace
another term for turned off blanked
Raster pattern, active trace, horizontal retrace all form the.... television field
the elctron beam is turned off and forms a ______ at the top of the screen vertical retrace
what is the most common used line system> 525
What is the weakest link in the image intensified fluoro.... tv monitor
Created by: erikasmith28