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Rad Physics Final

Intensity increase with altitude and latitude in what? cosmic rays
Potassium-40 internally deposited radionuclides
Represented by large deposits of uranium, thorium, and other radionuclides terrestrial radiation
largest source of natural environmental radiation radon
the quantity of matter contained in any physical object and is measured in kg mass
energy of motrion kinetic energy
e=mc2 mass energy equivalence
no mass, no charge and travels at the speed of light electromagnetic energy
anything that occupies space matter
the binding energy of an electron to a nucleus would? be higher for an L shell than for an M shell of an atom
Tungsten (184/74 W) has how many neutrons 110
The horizontal rows in the periodic table are called? periods
the octet rules state that no outer shell of an atom can contain more than? 8 electrons
What is an isotope? atoms having the same atomic number but a different mass number
what is the theoreticl max number of electrons permitted in the N shell? 32
radioactive half life is? the time required for the radioactivity to reach on half its original value
how ar ethe elements on the periodic table arranged? increasing proton number
how is atomic number defined? the number of protons
what do 12/6 C and 14/6 C have in common? same number of protons
how many electrons could occupy the M shell of a germanium atom? 18
upon decay the results in the atomic number increasing by 1 beta emission
similar to xray, but different in origin gamma ray
upon decay results in the atomic mass number decreasing by 4 alpha emission
protons & neutrons nucleons
T/F diagnostic xrays are produced in the shells of atoms, vs gamma rays which are the result of radioactive decay from the nucleus True
t/f the energy of a photon is directly proportional to its frequency true
t/f the energy of a diagnostic xray is less than visible light false
diagnostic ultrasound is part of the electromagnetic spectrum t/f? false
diagnostic xrays have a longer wavelength than ultraviolet light t/f? false
structures that are radiopaque do not absorb xrays? t/f? false
the reduction in the intensity of the beam as it passes through matter is defined as attenuation t/f? true
at a given velocity, wavelength and frequency are directly proportional? t/f? false
according to wave particle duality, diagnostic xrays behave more like particles
characteristics of xray photons have no mass, and are electrically neutral have a veolcity of 3 x 10*8 m/s
the number of wavelengths passing a point per second frequency
the velocity of an xray photon 3 x 10^8 m/s
einstein's theory of relativity e=mc2
one half the range from crest to valley over which the isne wave varies amplitude
the distance from crest to crest or valley to valley wavelength
electromagnetic induction refers to the production of? an electric current
when a charged particle moves in a straight line, a magnetic field is induced how? perpendicular to the direction of travel
how are the resistance of a wire and the diameter of the wire related? decreased resistance as the diameter of the wire increases
if two magenets were brought together north to north poles will what? and the south poles will what? repel/attract
what is the unit for electric power? watts (w)
an electrical insulator would? inhibit the movement of electrons
the output current in a step up transformer would be? higher than the input current
according to electrostatic laws: an electron will repel an electron
the unit of electrical potential? Volt
coulomb's law states that electrostatic force is? inversely proportional to the square of the distance between charges
what is the best electric conductor? copper
what is the SI unit for magnetic field strength? tesla
the principle difference between self induction and mutual induction is mutual induction require 2 coils and self only requires one.
the xray tube requires Dc not AC to operate. t/f? true
the autotransformer operates off of the principle of self indution t/f? true
increased voltage ripple results in higher radiation quality and quantity? t/f? false
a high frequency generator uses an inverter to square off voltage pulses, resulting in less voltage ripple t/f? true
A RT used the AEC for a lateral C spine and did not position the vertebrae over the center cell this would result in the image looking underexposed? t/f? true
the filament transformer is a step down transformer? t/f? true
the prereading voltmeter reads kVp? t/f? false
the rectifiers are located in the xray tube? t/f? false
a step up transformer has a turns ration of >1? t/f? true
what are the 3 principal parts of an xray unit? xray tube, control console and high voltage generator
what is the preferred choice of material for a radiogrpahic table? carbon fiber
a spinning top is used to check the exposure time on which type of unit? single phase radiographic unit
how many rectifiers are required to achieve full wave rectification? 4
how many overlapping pulses are generated in 1s for a 3 phase/12 pulse generator? 720
where would the rectifiers be physically located? between the secondary side of step up transformer and xray tube
A 90/30 table would allow what? a table to tilt 90 degrees towards the feet and 30 degrees towards the head.
what is responsible for providing protection at the level of the gonads during fluoro and has a Pb equivalency of .25 mm? bucky slot cover
the output current of a step up transformer would be? less than the input current
what part of a radiographic unit automatically selects the highest mA and shortest time for an exam? falling load generator
what is the principle reason the high voltage generator is surrounded by oil? electrical insulator
where is the autotransformer physically located? operating console
what is true about AEC? positioning is critical to correctly exposing patient. the back up time should be set 150% of the expected mAs
what is the principle difference between self induction and mutual induction? mutual induction requires 2 coils and self requires 1
a line voltage compensator is necessary to supplywhat? the autotransformer with precisely 220 V
the filament operates at currents between? 3-6 A
3 phase/6 pulse voltage ripple 13%
high frequency power voltage ripple <1%
full wave rectified power voltage ripple 100%
half wave rectified power voltage ripple 100%
3 phase/12 pulse voltage ripple 4%
accurate to exposure as low as 1 ms and can be used for serial exposures? electronic timer
minimum exposure time is 1/60th second? synchronous timer
what terminates the exposure once it has received 1 mR of exposure? AEC
what terminates exposure once the correct mAs has been achieved? mAs timer
what is not accurate and can only be used for exposure > 250 ms? mechanical timer
the xray tube housing helps to protect against radiation exposure and electrical shock? t/f? true
the anode is powered by an induction motor? t/f? true
the cloud of electrons surrounding the filament can be referred to as the space charge? tf? true
a smaller target angle would result in a larger effective focal spot? t/f? false
the 2 primary parts of the cathode are the filament and rotor? tf? false
what type of transformer would be responsible for supplying current to the filament? step down
what target angles is characteristic of a modern rotatin anode xray tube? 10 degrees
what is true about the anode heel effect? xray beam intensity can vary by up to 45% from cathode to anode
if the rotor of an anode fails to rotate, what is the most likely cause of tube failure? pitted anode
what are functions of the anode? supports the target, radiates heat, and conducts electricity
protective tube housings are designed to keep leakage radiation at what levels? less than 100mR/hr at 1 m when operated at max. kV and mA
if a max exposure technique was applied to a cold anode what is the likely result? cracked anode
what is true about the anode heel effect? small anode angles result in larger heel effect position the thicker anatomy under the cathode side of the tube
what sex of exposure factors would be space charged limited? low kVp and high mA
what is the focusing cup of the cathode negatively charged? repels electrons and helps focus the electron beam towards the focal tract on the anode
according to the line focus principle, the effective focal spot is what compared to the actual focal spot? smaller
modern xray tubes used for radiaography are? dual focus tubes
why is tungsten the best material choice for xray tube targets? high atomic number
Created by: 671470335