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Final Psy 230

Tolerance Decreased sensitivity to a drug as a consequence of exposure to it.  Shift in the dose-response curve
What is Cross tolerance? Exposure to one drug can produce tolerance to similar drugs
Withdrawal Symptoms 1. Seen when drug use is terminated 2. Symptoms are the opposite of the drug’s effects 3. Body has made changes to compensate for drug’s presence – functions normally with the drug present 4. Severity varies with drug and pattern of use
Addiction: Addiction can occur when rewards –especially nonnatural rewards--tap into this system and upset its parameters, producing
Physical Dependence: -Indicated by occurrence of withdrawal symptoms-Seen when drug use is terminated-Symptoms are the opposite of the drug’s effects-Body has made changes to compensate for drug’s presence – functions normally with the drug present-Severity varies with drug
What plays a primary role in drug addiction? Nucleus Accumbens (NA)
When a drug is injected what produces conditioned placed preferences? The Nucleus Accumbens
What happens when Nucleus Accumbens (NA) is lesioned? 1. There is no drug self-administration 2. NO drug-related place preference
Where does Dopamine (DA) neurons get projected to? From the midbrain to areas in the telencephalon.
What causes an increase of dopamine in the Nucleus Accumbens (NA)? Both self-administration of addictive drugs and natural reinforcers
What pathway is involved with “reward” from drug use? Mesocorticolimbic pathway (AKA mesolimbic pathway). -This is where there is increased DA release.
What do DA(dopamine) antagonists interfere with? Self-stimulation and reduce the reinforcing effects of food
How does Cocaine act as a DA antagonist? By binding to DA transporters and blocking reuptake
When are cocaine addicts “high”? Addicts only report a high when cocaine is effectively blocking DA reuptake, increasing extracellular dopamine
What is contingent drug tolerance? Contingent tolerance only develops to drug effects that are experienced in conjunction with the contingent event
What is Conditioned drug tolerance? Maximal tolerance effects are seen in the environment in which a drug is usually taken (e.g. smoking after the movies)
What is the Dose-Response Curve? • Increasingly stronger doses of the drug produce increasingly larger effects until the max effect is reached. • HOWEVER, side effects can still keep going up!!!
What is Physical-Dependence Theory (of addiction)? o Use continues, in order to avoid withdrawal
What are Positive-Incentive Theories (of addiction)? • Use continues due to craving for drug effects • Supported by research
What are some causes of relapse? • Stress • Drug use as a coping mechanism • Priming • A single exposure leads to a relapse • Environmental cues
Describe the dopamine theory of addiction. - The level of dopamine receptors in the brain can influence whether a person likes or dislikes the effects of a drug. - Persons with lower numbers of dopamine receptors find it pleasurable.
Tobacco abuse side effects?  Smoker’s syndrome – chest pain, labored breathing, wheezing, coughing, increased susceptibility to respiratory infections  Reduces life-span by an average of 9 years (longer for women)
Tobacco mechanism of action? Inhalation  Absorption through mucous membranes  Nose, mouth, rectum
Tobacco major health hazards?  Susceptible to various lethal lung disorders – pneumonia, bronchitis, emphysema, lung cancer
Alcohol abuse side effects?  Severe withdrawal – 3 phases  5-6 hrs post-drinking: tremors, nausea, sweating, vomiting, etc.  15-30 hrs: convulsive activity  24-48 hrs: delirium tremens – may last 3-4 days  Korsakoff’s syndrome, confabulation  Cirrhosis
What does alcohol do to the brain? 1. Reduces flow of Ca++ to neurons 2. Interferes with 2nd messenger systems 3. Disrupts CABA 4. Triggers apoptosis
Marijuana abuse side effects?  High doses impair short-term memory and interfere with tasks involving multiple steps
Marijuana mechanism of action? Inhalation  - Absorption through mucous membranes  Nose, mouth, rectum
Marijuana abuse major health hazards?  Respiratory problems – cough, bronchitis, asthma  Single large doses can trigger heart attacks in susceptible individuals
Cocaine abuse side effects?  Cocaine binges or sprees may lead to cocaine psychosis
Heroin abuse side effects?  Tolerance and physical dependence develop  Desire to avoid withdrawal adds to motivation to use
Heroin abuse major health hazards?  Many health hazards related to use of needles
Heroin mechanism of action? IV injection
What are Psychoactive drugs? Drugs that influence subjective experience & behavior by acting on the nervous system
What is drug administration? Route of administration influences the rate at which and the degree to which the drug reaches its site of action
What are the 2 pathways in the telencephalon? Pathway 1: Nigrostriatal pathway 2. Mesocorticolimbic pathway
What does the Nigrostriatal Pathway consist of? Substantia nigra > Dorsal striatum (largely motor control)
What does the Mesocorticolimbic pathway consist of? Ventral tegmental area > cortical and limbic sites
How does the Mesocorticolimbic Pathway play a roll in drug abuse? 1. Self-stimulation sites that do not contain DA neurons project here 2. Increase in DA release seen here in self-stimulation studies 3. DA agonists tend to increase self-stimulation and antagonists to decrease 4. Lesions here disrupt self-stimulation
What 2 neurotransmitters are influenced by drug abuse and addiction? GABA and glutamate
What is the Broca’s area ? For speech production
What happens when you damage Brocas areas? Expressive aphasia  Normal comprehension, speech is meaningful – but awkward
What is Wernicke’s area for? Speech Comprehension
What happens when you damage Wernicke’s area? Receptive aphasia  Poor comprehension, speech sounds normal – but has no meaning – ‘word salad’
What is Arcuate fasciculus? Connects Broca’s and Wernicke’s
What happens when you damage Arcutate fasciculus?  Damage > conduction aphasia  Comprehension and speech normal  Unable to repeat
What is Left angular gyrus ? posterior to Wernicke’s area
The left-hemipsphere is dominant for speech in? Nearly all right-handers and majority of left-handers.
How can information from the right eye cross to the left hemisphere? 1. Optic chaism 2. Corpus Callosum
What happens when you damage angular gyrus? Damage > alexia (inability to read) and agraphia (inability to write)
What is Aphasia? Deficit in language comprehension or production due to brain damage – usually on the left.
What is Apraxia? Difficulty performing movements when asked to do so out of context – also a consequence of damage on the left
What are Aphasia and apraxia associated with? Damage to left hemisphere
What does the left side of the brain control? Language and voluntary movement.
How to determine which side of the hemisphere’s are dominant? 1. Sodium Amytal Test 2. Dichotic listening 3. Functional brain imaging
What is Sodium Amytal test? Anesthetize one hemisphere and check for language function
What is Dichotic listening test? Report more digits heard by the dominant half
Dextrals Right-handers
Sinestrals Left-handers
What is corpus callosum? The largest cerebral commissure  Transfers learned information from one hemisphere to the other  When cut, each hemisphere functions independently
Describe the methods used to study split-brain humans.  Present a picture to the right visual field (left brain)  Left hemisphere can tell you what it was  Right hand can show you, left hand can’t  Present a picture to the left visual field (right brain)Subject will report that they do not know what i
Provide evidence that each hemisphere of a split-brain patient can function independently.  Each hemisphere of a split-brain can learn independently and simultaneously  Presented with 2 different visual stimuli  Helping-hand phenomenon – the hand that “knows” may correct the other
Examples of Lateralization of Function : Right hemisphere superiority  Spatial ability  Emotion  Musical ability  Some memory tasks
Examples of Lateralization of Function: Left hemisphere: Superior in controlling ipsilateral movement
Right hemisphere superiority: Spatial ability Better at matching 3-D image with 2-D
Right hemisphere superiority: Emotion Better at perceiving facial expressions and mood
Right hemisphere superiority: Musical ability Better at perception of melodies
What are three anatomical asymmetries of the human brain? 1. Planum temporale (Wernicke’s Area) 2. Heschl’s gyrus 3. Frontal operculum (Broca’s Area)
Function of Planum Temporale? -.Wernicke’s Area - Temporal lobe, posterior lateral fissure - Language comprehension
Function of Heschl’s gyrus? primary auditory cortex
Function of Frontal operculum - (Broca’s Area) - Near face area of primary motor cortex - Language production
What is Analytic-synthetic theory?  2 modes of thinking, analytic (left) and synthetic (right)  Vague and essentially untestable  “the darling of pop psychology”
Motor theory  Left controls fine movements – speech is just a category of movement  Left damage may produce speech and motor deficits
Linguistic theory  Primary role of left is language
Whats the theories of cerebral asymmetry purpose? That it’s better to have brain areas that do similar things be in the same hemisphere
Dyslexia Reading difficulties not due to some other deficit
Developmental dyslexia Apparent when learning to read (more common in boys)
Acquired dyslexia Due to brain damage
What are two procedures for reading aloud? • Lexical – using stored information about words • Phonetic – sounding out
Surface dyslexia Lexical procedure lost, can’t recognize words
Deep dyslexia Phonetic procedure lost, can’t sound out unfamiliar words. - Damage to the left-hemisphere language areas
In deep dyslexia if there is extensive damage to the left-hemisphere how is it that lexical abilities are spared?  Lexical abilities may be housed in left language areas that are spared  Lexical abilities may be mediated by the right hemisphere  Evidence for both exists
What kinds of crises elicit emotions?  Danger (present) elicits Fear  Danger (potential) elicits Anxiety  Resource competition elicits anger and aggression  Stimuli important in perpetuating your DNA elicit affection, love, sexual interest, parental care, etc….as appropriate
What is– “principle of antithesis”? Opposite messages are often signaled by opposite movements  Threat displays, for example, are beneficial – intimidate victims without the costs and risks for fighting Submission displays, which in social species may resemble infant begging behavior
What is facial feedback hypothesis? Smiling makes you happier; facial muscles influence emotional experience
What are microexpressions? Brief facial expressions reveal true feelings; may break through false ones
What is Kluver-Bucy Syndrome a result of? • Results from bilateral damage to anterior temporal lobes • Rare cerebral neurological disorder
What are the major symptoms of the Kluver-Bucy Syndrome? • Urge to put objects into mouth • Memory loss • Extreme sexual behavior • Placidity • Visual distractibility • Reflects inability to identify biologically important stimuli • Pig and dog? Woman and Eiffel Tower
Evolutionary function of various behaviors and subjective effect: Defense? Subjective effect: Reduction in fear Function: Reduction in danger
Evolutionary function of various behaviors and subjective effect: Sex? Subjective effect: Orgasm/pleasure Function: Reproduction
Evolutionary function of various behaviors and subjective effect: Eating? Subjective effect: Satiety/pleasure Function: Provision of energy
Evolutionary function of various behaviors and subjective effect: Aggression? Subjective effect: Victory/pleasure Function: Resource control
What are the different types of aggressive and defensive behaviors? 1. Defensive threat/attack 2. Play fighting 3. Predatory “aggression”: hunger
What are the functions of aggression? Resource control
What are the three qualities of resources that make them worth fighting for? 1.Valuable 2.Occur in substantial, sequesterable, units, e.g.Predators usually get food in large packets; prey is hard to get.Herbivores usually do not fight over individual food items, but territory often comes with rich food sources.3.Scarce
What are the benefits of Dominance relationships? 1. Having priority of access to resources. 2. Provide a consistent priority of resource access for the dominants The social environment can foster tools for limiting interspecies aggression (think of the hippos, deer, lions, etc.).
Describe at least three strategies that have evolved to protect against lethality in social species. 1. Be bigger 2. Measure strength rather than size 3. Develop and display weapons/physical features capable of being easily compared. (hippo)
Explain the meaning of “limbic.” An emotional circuit system including the hypothalamus. Suggesting hypothalamus is needed for expression of aggression and cortex serves to inhibit and direct responses.
What is the function of the limbic system?  Focused on finding a ‘reverbrating circuit” in which an impulse could continue to travel in a self-perpetuating manner.  To explain why emotions last a long time
What are some of the effects of stress on the immune system? Ulcers are caused by a bacterium – stress appears to makes the body vulnerable to this bacteria.
What are some of the effects of stress on the Hippocampus? • Dendrites of pyramidal cells are shorter and less branched • Adult neurogenesis of granule cells reduced
What can cronic stress do to the hippocampus? SHRINK the hippocampus (HPC)  Torture (Argentina)  Sexual abuse (USA)  Rat studies
What are some of the epigenetic effects of stress? -Stress or mistreatment early in life may cause brain and endocrine abnormalities later in life. - When taken from mother rats they had a more maladptive stress response.
What does epigenetic mean? - Not of the genes - Heritable traits (over rounds of cell division) that don’t involve changes to the underlying DNA sequence.
What is Psychoneuroimmunology?  Study of the interaction of psychological factors, nervous system, and immune system
What are Antigens? Proteins that identify a cell as native or foreign
What are the Divisions of the mammalian immune system? o Innate immune system o Adaptive immune system
What is Innate immune system? • First line of defense • Attacks generic classes of pathogens
What is Adaptive immune system? • Targets specific pathogens identified by their antigens • Has memory (the basis of effectiveness of vaccination)
What effect does acute stress have on body? Improve immune function
What effect does chronic stressors have on the body? Impair immune function
What the HPA axis does?  Suppresses immune responses  Suppresses gonadal functioning  (chronic) Produces memory problems, obesity, lowers sexual interest and gonadal functioning, and lowers the threshold for infections
Difference between Neuropsychological disorders and Psychiatric?  Neuropsychological disorders – brain problem  Psychiatric – mind problem
What is Autism? • three main symptom clusters o Deficit in reciprocal social interaction o Deficiences in communication o Ritualized, repetitive, or stereotyped behavior
What is schizophrenia? • splitting of psychic functions” (NOT split personality) o Refers to the breakdown of integration of emotion, thought, and action o Positive or florid vs negative symptoms
Prevalence of schizophrenia? Affects 1% of the population
Symptoms of Schizophrenia: • Delusions • Hallucinations • Odd behavior • Incoherent thought • Inappropriate affect o Only 1 symptom needed for 8 months for diagnosis
Therapies (including drugs) used to treat: • Chlorpromazine – calms many agitated schizophrenics and may activate emotional blunting • Reserpine – also found to be effective • Both drugs are not effective for 2-3 weeks and Parkinson-like motor effects are seen
What is the 33:33:33 rule in schizophrenia? 33 improve by themselves; 33% with treatment, 33% don’t improve.
Prevalence of affective disorders: ~6% suffer from unipolar affective disorder at some point, ~1% from bipolar: both tend to last a long time
Symptoms of affective disorders: Stressful experiences Depression
Therapies (including drugs) used to treat affective disorders:  Behavior therapies frequently recommended, including self-treatment (e.g. to avoid stress)  Drug treatments  Last ditch treatment. Electroconvulsive shock therapy.
Prevalence of bipolar: 5.7 million American adults per year: 2.6% (controversial)
Symptoms of Bipolar: Alternating episodes of mania and depression; each may be short, or, last for months
Therapies (including drugs) used to treat bipolar? Lithium
Prevalence of Tourette’s Syndrome: Between 1 and 10 in 1000 (.1 to 1%)
Symptoms of Tourette’s Syndrome: A disorder of tics, involuntary movements or vocalizations….generally very offensive vocalizations • eye blinking • coughing • throat clearing • sniffing • facial movements • Coprolalia (shocking language)
Therapies (including drugs) used to treat Tourette’s: Sometimes treated with neuroleptics, or SSRIs
What are psychiatric disorders influenced by? Experiential factors
What are the four classes of drugs that are used in the treatment of affective disorders? 1. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) (phenylzine) 2. Tricyclic antidepressants (tofranil, elavil, etc.) 3. Selective monoamine reuptake inhibitors 4. Lithium – mood stabilizer
What are Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) (phenylzine): (four classes of drugs that are used in the treatment of affective disorder)? 1. Prevent breakdown of monoamines 2. If taking MAOIs, should avoid foods high in tyramine – ‘cheese effect’ 3. Sudden rise in tyramine can cause high BP, even stroke
What are Tricyclic antidepressants (tofranil, elavil, etc.): (four classes of drugs that are used in the treatment of affective disorder)? • Block reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine • Safer than MAOIs
What are Selective monoamine reuptake inhibitors: (four classes of drugs that are used in the treatment of affective disorder)? SSRIs and SNRIs Prozac and its family
What is Lithium: (four classes of drugs that are used in the treatment of affective disorder)? Mood stabilizer • Not a drug – treats bipolar
What are affective disorders? 1. Depression 2. Unipolar 3. Mania 4. Bipolar Affective disorder
What is depression? Normal reaction to loss, abnormal when it persists or has no cause
What is mania? Opposite of depression (sort of) (anxiety, tho)
What is unipolar? Depression only • Reactive – triggered by negative event • Endogenous – no apparent cause • Likely no such thing as “no cause”
What is Bipolar affective disorder? Depression with periods of mania
What are the anxiety disorders? 1. PD 2. Phobias 3. PTSD 4. OCD 5. GAD 6. Social Phobias
What is GAD? 1. Worry 2. “rumination” 3. “vigilance and scanning” 4. “apprehensive expectation” about some hard to define event.
What is OCD? Obsessions (thoughts) and compulsions (actions)..typically actions to control feelings of dread
What is PD? - Sudden onset panic, with heart palpitations - Feeling of imminent death - Need to escape or flee (agoraphobia)
What is PTSD? - After traumatizing event. - Range of symptoms including depersonalization - Anhedonia - Reliving of the traumatic experience in dreams or waking hallucinations
What are drugs used to treat anxiety disorders? -Benzodiazepines (but abuse liability) (Librium, Valium) -SSRIs, serotonin agonists (Buspar) - recommendations for behavior therapy in addition to (or instead of) pharmacological treatment.
How are anxiety different from other disorders? Behaviorally
What are endophenotypes? A physiological or molecular deviation that is strongly associated with a psychiatric disorder.
Why are endophenotypes significant for biological psychology? - Endophenotypes may also be useful when there are NO drugs that really help with a particular disorder - reflects a strong current emphasis on the search for mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders.
What are the animal models used to model anxiety disorders and test the efficacy of anxiolytic drugs? 1. Risk-assessment test 2. Elevated-plus-maze 3. Defensive-burying
What is the Elevated-plus-maze? Animal models used to model anxiety disorders: Time in open arms indicates less anxiety
What is Defensive-burying? Animal models used to model anxiety disorders: More time burying, more anxiety
What is the Risk-assessment test? Animal models used to model anxiety disorders: Time freezing and assessing risk indicate anxiety level
Recent research suggests that dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens may be related more to the ____________________ of reward than to the experience of the reward. Anticipation
Dementia, liver cirrhosis, and gastritis are often experienced by people addicted to ________________. Alcohol
Individuals who suffer drug withdrawal symptoms when they stop taking a drug are said to be A) PHYSICALLY DEPENDENT. B) psychologically dependent. C) addicted. D) both A and B E) both B and C
Taking one drug can often produce tolerance to other drugs; such tolerance is called ______________________. Cross Tolerance
Split-brain patients are those who A) HAVE BEEN COMMISSUROTOMIZED. B) have split personalities. C) are schizophrenic. D) have cerebral commissures. E) have only one hemisphere.
Broca's area is in the A) left hemisphere. B) frontal lobe. C) inferior prefrontal cortex. D) ALL OF THE ABOVE E) both A and B
During a conventional postsurgery test, this split-brain patient was asked to reach under the ledge with her left hand and select the object that appeared on the screen. She selected the A) spoon. B) APPLE. C) first the spoon and then the apple. D) first the apple and then the spoon. E) none of the above.
The dopaminergic brain nucleus that has been linked more than any other to the rewarding effects of addictive drugs is the nucleus _________________. Accumbens
According to the Wernicke-Geschwind model, word salad results from damage to _______________. Wernicke’s area
The Kluver-Bucy syndrome appears to result, to a large degree, from bilateral damage to the A) hippocampus. B) hypothalamus. C) AMYGDALA. D) septum. E) cortex.
According to lecture, emotions most likely evolved because they contribute to resolving biologically important problems such as: A) AVOIDING PREDATION B) intimidating conspecifics who are competing for resources C) attracting mates D) all of the above E) none of the above
Which species are more likely to develop physical weapons (horns, tusks, large teeth, etc.) that are easily comparable and may prevent injury between conspecifics? A) Medium-large solitary animals living large open area like the African savanna. B) Small gregarious (group-living) animals living in a dense wooded forest. C) LARGE GREGARIOUS ANIMALS LIVING IN AN OPEN HABITAT LIKE THE AFRICAN SAVANNA D) Small animals
Which neurotransmitter is most implicated in schizophrenia? A) DOPAMINE. B) Haloperidol. C) Serotonin. D) GABA. E) Glycine.
True or False: Depression tends to be twice as common in men compared to women. A) True B) FALSE
. The cost of development, preclinical testing, and clinical trials –up to FDA approval - for a psychoactive drug is currently about $_________________________ . 800 million to 1 billion dollars
Brain imaging studies have consistently revealed degeneration and shrinkage of the __________ in patients with sever anxiety disorders. A) Amygdala. B) Cingulate cortex. C) Thalamus. D) Cortex. E) NONE OF THE ABOVE
“Endophenotype” is basically a new name for A) etiology B) biomarker C) part of the prefrontal cortex D) IMMUNE RESPONSE MECHANISM E) childhood obesity.
What structure is known for being larger in the left hemisphere in about 65% of human brains? The planum temporale
Created by: kdas