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Cognition Final

Definition of Descriptive Account Telling us how reasoning ordinarily proceeds (including the errors)
When we discuss induction and other aspects of human reasoning, what will we be comparing? Descriptive and Normative accounts
Definition of Normative Account Telling us how we ought to reason
What is induction? Seeks to draw general claims from specific bits of evidence
How do we make judgments? Recalling that a heuristic is a strategy that is reasonably efficient and works most of the time
Judgement heuristics include? attribute substitution, availability heuristic, representativeness heruristic, anchoring, illusory covariation, base rate neglect (conjunction fallacy)
What is attribute substitution? strategy used when we do not have easy access to a desired piece of information, so we base our decision on readily available information that we believe is correlated with the desired information
What is availability heuristic? When assessing the frequency or likelihood of an event, the ease with which examples come to mind is used as an index of frequency or likelihood.
What is a representative heuristic? Using prototype categories to make judgments, where you lose variability by assuming homogeneity
Example of Representative heuristic? Steoreotypes, gamblars fallacy, "i know a man who" arguments
What is anchoring? relying too heavily on the first piece of information offered
what is illusory covariation? People assume a cause and effect relation where there is none. People perceive a pattern in data, leading them to believe that the presence of one factor allows them to predict the presence of another factor.
What is base rate neglect? Tendency for people to mistakenly judge the likelihood of a situation by not taking into account all relevant data
What is conjunction fallacy? The tendency to think that the probability of two things happening is more likely than the probability of one thing happening.
Group 1-If someone is cosen at random from a group of 70 lawyers and 30 engineers, what is his profession likely to be? Lawyer-Base Rate
Group 2-A panel of psychologists interviewed and administered personality tests to a group.Description: hobbies include carpentry, sailing, and mathematical puzzles and has little interest in political and social issues. What is his profession to be? Engineer-Diagnostic Info
Group 3-Given the description and told that the individual is selected from a group of 70 lawyers and 30 engineers. What is his profession likely to be? If base rate=lawyer and diagnostic=lawyer, then they should be confident in saying the person is a lawyer. if base rate=lawyer and diagnostic=engineer, less confident in saying the person is a lawyer. ignore BR when diagnostic is given
Why are base rates ignored? Ignore BR infö when other info is available. Diagnostic used over base rate, irrelevant info over BR, framing of the question draws attention away from the BR, BR does not apply to "you". Misunderstandings of the world-race & crime, illness & detection
Expected utility theory? Normative-probability vs. value
What improves Judgments Training and Education: statistics, psychology, problem-solving techniques
What are dual process models? Propose that people have two distinct ways of thinking about evidence that they encounter
What are the two systems? System 1: refers to thinking that is fast, automatic and uses heuristics System 2: Refers to thinking that is slower, effortful and more likely to be correct Depends on the context of the decision (how much time/attention & working memory available)
How do we reason? Deduction
What is deduction? Starts with claims and general assertions and ask what follows from these premises
What is judgment? A belief about something that is held by a person
What is reason? Is the process that the mind uses in order to reach judgments about things
Judgment relies on induction? Drawing general claims/ theories from specific bits of evidence
Relies on deduction? Based on these claims/theories, what follows? reason
Confirmation bias? Finding support for something you already believe and discounting what does not fit with your belief
What is belief perseverance? A tendency to continue endorsing a belief even when evidence has completely undermined it.
How people make decisions under uncertainty? Effects of: Framing, risks, alternatives, loss aversion
Framing Choices will vary depending on how the information is presented-focus on only some of the evidence-either just the positives or just the negatives
When do people take risks? When the choices are perceived as losses, participants tend to be risk-seeking. choices are perceived as gains, participants tend to be risk-averisve
What is loss aversion? People tend to view a loss as being more significant than a gain
Which program to adopt? If problem D is adopted, there is 1/3 probability that nobody will die, and 2/3 probability that 600 people will die-rather take the safe bet vs. the risk to loose more
Affective Heuristics? Emotions play a role in decision making
Decisions that involve assessing risk depend on the feeling of dread of an undesirable outcome, or anticipating the feeling of regret for having made the wrong choice Affective Heuristics Example
Somatic Markers Body states like a tight stomach or a fast heart rate-when making a decision
The orbitofrontal cortex seems to be essential for the evaluation of? Somatic Markers
What are logical arguments containing two premises and a conclusion Categorical syllogisms
What are the two premises? Valid vs. invalid; abstract vs. concrete
Major, Minor and conclusion All men are mortal, socrates is a man, therefore, socrates is mortal
Affirming the antecedent modus ponens (valid) if A then B, A, then B If it is snowing, then class is cancelled-it is snowing-therefore class is cancelled
Denying the consequent modus tollens (valid) if A then B, not B, then not A if it is snowing, then class is cancelled-class is not cancelled-therefore, it is not snowing
Denial of the antecedent invalid inference-if A then B, not A, then not B if it is snowing, then class is cancelled. it is not snowing. therefore class is not cancelled
Affirmation of the consequent invalid inference-if A then b, B, then A it is snowing, then class is cancelled. class is cancelled-therefore it is snowing
What is belief bias? Endorse the conclusions that you believe in despite the reasoning
Errors in logical reasoning? Carelessness, belief bias, atmosphere errors, conversion errors
What are atmosphere errors? wording of premises provide an atmosphere that make some conclusions that have a similar structure seem more likely than others "all" in premises tend to lead to expectation of "all" in the conclusions
Conversion errors? An error interpreting "all A's are B's as though it is identical to "all B's are A's"
Invalid inference? affirmation of the consequent-if A then B, B, then A if you receive an A on the exam then you are happy. you are happy. therefore you received an A on the exam,
Wason Four Card Selection Task Rule: if a card has a vowel on one side, it must have an even number on the other side
Role of Context If a person is drinking beer, then the person must be at least 21 years of age- (16 years, drinking beer)
What is a pragmatic reasoning schema? A set of rules derived from experience that define the inferences appropriate to a specific situation One schema may define rules appropriate to thinking about the situation"permission" whereas another is used for "cause and effect" relations
Logical: What is necessary and sufficient? Necessary: a requirement Sufficient: All that is needed
What is a well defined problem? the goal state as well as the available operators are clearly specified
What is an ill defined problem? The goal state and the available operators are not clearly specified
The problem space-thought of as a search, navigating a maze initial state, goal state, operators and path constraints
Initial state? The knowledge and resources you have at the outset
goal state? the state you are working towards
operators? available tools or actions
path constraints? limits that rule out some operations
general problem solving methods? hill climbing strategy
Hill climbing strategy? Is the heuristic to choose an option that moves you in the direction of the goal-many problems require you move away from the goal state
Means end analysis the problem solver asks at each step how the current state can be made more similar to the goal state, using available operators. used in reverse, asking how the goal state can be made similar to the current state
Working backward? a related idea, working backward from the goal
Mental imagery? Help in problem solving, bookworm problem
Use of analogies to help problem solving. What are analogies? Inference that if two or more things agree with one another in some respects they will probably agree in others. if it works in one situation, probably work in related situations. comparison based on resemblance. useful representation for novel problems
People are bad at generating analogies? T or F True
Good analogies look past shallow surface structure and focus on? Deep structure
Functioning fixedness refers to? A tendency to be regid in thinking about an object's function
What is the problem solving set? Collection of beliefs and assumptions a person makes about a problem
a related concept, Einstellung refers to (attitude) a problem solver's perspective, including beliefs, habits, and strategies
What is creativity? Coming up with new or different approaches to solve the same problem-brainstorming: quantity of ideas, not quality of ideas
Case studies of creativity? self reports of problem solving from creative individuals-four stages
Four Stages of creativity (walls, 1926) 1. preparation: gather info about the problem, period of effortful work, little progress 2. incubation-set problem aside, work on it unconsciously 3. Illumination-insight, new idea emerges 4. Verification-confirm that solution works and hash out detail
The "ah-ha" feeling difference that arrived at the correct answer vs. not participants who are on the wrong track are more confident in their progress
Who are experts? takes about 10 years of intensive training, excel mainly in their domains, perceive large meaningful patterns in their domain, retrieval is fast and effortless, have superior short term and long term memory for materials in their domain
Experts? See and represent a problem in their domain at a deeper level than novices (deeper understanding), spend a great deal of time analyzing a problem qualitatively, have strong self-monitoring skill. metacognition-knowledge of what you know
Created by: 30504577