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Positioning 2 Final

Bony Thorax- BE

QuestionAnswer
What forms the bony thorax? Sternum, 12 pairs of ribs, 12 thoracic vertebrae
Which projection and body position will demonstrate the sternum through the heart? PA Oblique, RAO
How much should the body be rotated for a Pa oblique projection of the sternum 15-20 degrees
Which SID is recommended for the lateral projection of the sternum for mgmt of magnification? 72" SID
Where should the patient's hands be positioned for an upright lateral sternum? Locked behind the back
What is the respiration for a lateral sternum? Deep Inspiration
the CR angle for a lateral sternum Perpendicular
Where is the center of the IR positioned for a PA projection of the Sternoclavicular joints? 3rd thoracic vertebra
How is the head positioned for a PA projection of both sternoclavicular articulations (bilateral exam) with the chin on the grid/bucky
How is the patient's head positioned for a PA projection of one SC joint? (unilateral exam) with head turned toward the affected side
How much is the body rotated for a PA oblique of SC joints? 10-15 degrees
When performing the PA oblique of the SC joints, which joint would be demonstrated? The joint closest to the IR
How long is the sternum? 6"
How is the IR positioned for a lateral sternum? top of the IR is 1 1/2" above the jugular notch
How do the anterior ends of the thorax lie in comparison to the posterior ends? 3-5" lower
The CR for a PA projection of the upper ribs perpendicular
Where is the bottom of the IR positioned for an AP ribs below the diaphragm? at the iliac crests
Which ribs are best demonstrated on a PA oblique? side farthest from the IR
Which ribs are the true ribs? 1-7
Which ribs are demonstrated on an AP oblique projection? Side closest to the IR
the space between each of the ribs is called? intercostal spaces
which position would best demonstrate the anterior/axillary 6th rib on the left side? RAO
which type of body habitus will the diaphragm be at the highest level in the body? hypersthenic
How far is the top of the IR placed above the upper border of the shoulder for projections of the ribs? 1 1/2"
Which ribs are the false ribs? 8-12
How much is the body rotated for an AP or PA axillary projection of the ribs? 45 degrees
What is the respiration for an AP projection of ribs below the diaphragm suspend on full expiration
What is the respiration for the PA projection of the upper ribs? suspend on full inspiration
If ribs 7-9 aren't well demonstrated on the PA upper anterior projection, one should angle the CR? 10-15 degrees caudad
What are the advantages of using an SID of 72" for chest radiography? decreased magnification of the heart and sharper outlines of the delicate lung structures
Where does the trachea lie in relation to the esophagus? anterior
How many posterior ribs should be visible above the diaphragm on a PA chest projection? 10
what is the optimal position of the patient for exams of the heart and lungs? upright
what is the name of the double-walled serous membrane sac that encloses the lung? pleura
how far above the shoulders should the IR be positioned for a PA and lateral chest? 1 1/2" - 2"
What is the best respiration for a PA or lateral chest? suspend on full inspiration--second breath
Where should the top of the IR be positioned for a PA oblique projection of the lungs? 1 1/2" - 2" above the vertebral prominens
What are the parts of the mediastinum? heart, esophagus
How many degrees of body rotation is required for routine AP or PA oblique chest? 45 degrees
If the patient cannot be placed in the lordotic position for radiography of the pulmonary apices, what is the CR angle that can be used to project the clavicles above the apices? 15-20 degrees cephalad
For PA oblique projections of the chest, the side of interest is? the side farthest from the IR
the area between the two lungs is termed? mediastinum
The right lung is how much shorter than the left? 1"
what is the CR angle for the lordotic position demonstrating the pulmonary apices perpendicular
Why is the left lateral chest the most common used for lateral radiographs? patient's heart is closer to the IR
what is the degree of body rotation for the PA oblique, LAO position of the chest during a cardiac series? 55-60 degrees
the lungs are composed of a light, spongy, elastic substance called? parenchyma
The part of the lung that extends above the clavicle is? apex
what is the name of the tongue-shaped process on the anterior-medial border of the left lung? lingula
what is the CR for a PA chest? perpendicular
Which plane must be accurately parallel with the IR to prevent distortion of the thoracic structures during a lateral chest? MSP
To what vertebral level is the CR directed for PA and lateral chest radiographs? T7
What is the term used to describe air within the pleural cavity? pneumothorax
the most commonly performed abdominal exam is? KUB
what is the respiration for an AP abdomen in the supine position? suspend on deep expiration
where is the center of the IR positioned for an AP abdomen done in the upright position? 2" above the iliac crests
If a patient is unable to stand for an upright AP abdomen which position should be used? Left lateral decubitus
What plane is perpendicular to the grid for a lateral projection of the abdomen? MCP
What is the respiration for an AP or PA abdomen upright? suspend on expiration
What organs lie within the abdominal cavity? stomach, gallbladder, kidneys
One of the primary reasons a left lateral decubitus abdomen is done to demonstrate? air/fluid levels
the folds of the peritoneum that surround and support the abdominal organs are called? omenta and mesentery
the outer portion of the sac that lines the abdominopelvic cavity is? parietal peritoneum
where is the center of the IR positioned for an AP abdomen in supine position? iliac crests
the serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic walls is called? peritoneum
the narrow space between the two layers of peritoneum is called? peritoneal cavity
The CR angulation for an AP abdomen is? perpendicular
What organs lie in the pelvic cavity? rectum and urinary bladder
The inner portion of the sac that lines the abdominopelvic cavity is called? visceral peritoneum
If the patient can't flex the neck to place the OML perpendicular to the IR for a Towne projection ,which line should be placed perpendicular? IOML
the cranial bones are joined together by articulations called? sutures
which of the following lines is placed perpendicular to the plane of the IR for the AP Axial (towne) projection when the patient can flex the neck? OML
for an SMV projection of the cranial base, the CR should be perpendicular to the? IOML
what is clearly demonstrated within the foramen magnum during an AP axial (towne)of the skull? dorsum sellae, posterior clinoid processes
how many bones make up the cranium? 8
if the IOML is placed perpendicular to the IR during an AP axial Towne projection of the skull, how much is the CR angled? 37 degrees caudad
Which plane of the head is placed parallel to the plane of the IR for the lateral projection of the skull? MSP
which line should be placed parallel to the plane of the IR for the SMV projection of the cranial base? IOML
Which should be seen superimposed on a lateral skull? orbital roofs, EAM, temperomandibular joints
The CR and center of the IR position for a lateral skull is? 2" above the EAM
Often a patient cannot be turned into the prone position for the PA axial skull (caldwell) What CR angle could be used if the AP axial projection is used instead? 15 degrees cephalad
the CR angle for the PA axial (caldwell) projection of the skull is? 15 degrees caudad
The thickest and densest portion of the bone in the cranium is? petrous portion of the temporal bone
What is the name of the suture that connects the two parietal bone with the occipital bone? lambdoidal suture
for a lateral projection of the facial bones the IR is centered? zygomatic bone
which is placed parallel to the transverse axis of the IR for a lateral facial? IOML
the parietoacanthial projection of the facial bones is commonly called? Waters method
for the waters method the OML is placed at what angle to the IR? 37 degrees
Which of the following is centered to the IR for the parietoacanthial projection of the facial bones? acanthion
which part of the patient's face is touching the bucky for a waters projection of the facial bones? chin
where is the CR centered for a lateral projection of the nasal bones? 1/2" distal to the nasion
how many bones make up the face? 14
which facial bone contains a foramen through which the tear duct passes? lacrimal
which facial bones form the roof of the mouth? maxillae and palatine
What is true regarding the lateral projection of the nasal bones? both sides are done for comparison the IPL is perp to the table top
which facial bones are clearly demonstrated on the waters method? orbits, maxillae, zygomatic arches
the CR angle for the PA axial (caldwell) projection of the facial bones is: 15 degrees caudad
which of the following is perpendicular to the plane of the IR for a caldwell projection of the skull? OML
which of the patient's face touch the table for a PA axial projection (caldwell)facial forehead, nose
with reference to the IR, how should the CR be directed for the waters method of the facial bones? perpendicular
which evaluation criteria pertains to the lateral projection of the facial bones? orbital roofs superimposed, sella turcica should be seen in profile
Which reference line is perpendicular to the IR for the PA and PA axial mandibular rami? OML
What is the CR angulation for the AP axial projection of the zygomatic arches? 30 degrees caudad
For the tangential projection of the zygomatic arch the top of the head is tilted how many degrees? 15 degrees away from side examined
The axiolateral oblique projection is used to demonstrate the mandible. How is the head positioned to demonstrate the ramus of the mandible? TLP
What is the CR angulation for the PA axial projection of the mandibular rami? 20-25 degrees cephalad
for the SMV projection of the zygomatic arches the CR is directed perpendicular to? IOML
Both zygomatic arches can be demonstrated on one projection for which of the following projections? SMV and AP Axial
Which line is placed perpendicular to the plane of the IR for AP axial projection of the zygomatic arches? OML
for the tangential projection of the zygomatic arch, the head is positioned so the MSP is? 15 degrees toward the side being examined
for the tangential projection of the zygomatic arch the Cr is directed perpendicular ot? IOML
the largest and most dense bone of the face is? mandible
What projections will clearly demonstrate any medial or lateral displacement of fracture of the mandibular rami? PA and PA axial
what is the name of the thin, tapered projection of the ramus that site anterior to the mandibular notch? coronoid process
the Axiolateral oblique projection is used to demonstrate the mandible. How is the head is positioned to demonstrate the symphysis of the mandible? MPS 45 degees toward the IR
the axiolateral oblique is used to demonstrate the mandible. How is the head positioned to demonstrate the body of the mandible? MSP 30 degrees toward the IR
What is the CR angulation for all the projections of the mandible? 25 degrees cephalad
Where is the IR centered for the AP axial projection of the zygomatic arches? Mandibular angles
the name of the most anterior and central part of the mandible is known as? symphysis
The respiration for all projections of the facial bones and sinuses are? suspended
which sinus is located immediately below the sella turcica? sphenoidal
which sinus is projected through the mouth on the open mouth waters? sphenoidal
what is included as functions of the sinuses? decrease the weight of the skull, warm and moisten inhaled air, and provide a resonating chamber for voice
at which level should the CR enter the base of the skull for the SMV sinuses? 3/4" anterior to level of EAM
the parietoacnathial projection (waters) of the sinuses requires the OML to be placed how many degrees from the plane of the IR? 37 degrees
What must be projected below the maxillary sinuses for the waters method of the sinus? petrous pyramids
the successfully demonstrate the ethmoidal and sphenoidal sinuses on the SMV what must occur? the IOML must be as parallel as possible with IR and the CR must be perpendicular to the IOML
For a lateral projection of the sinuses the CR is directed? 1/2 - 1" posterior to the outer canthus
What should be clearly demonstrated on a lateral sinus all 4 sinus groups, superimposed orbital roofs, superimposed mandibular rami
What 3 views compose a routine sinus series? lateral, caldwell, waters
what contrast media are used for exams of the GI tract? air, barium sulfate, water-soluble iodinated contrast
The degree of body rotation for the PA oblique of the stomach will depend on the body habitus. The greatest degree of rotation would be used for which body habitus? hypersthenic
the PA projection of the stomach best demonstrates the entire stomach and duodenal loop
What is the degree of body rotation for a PA oblique esophagus? 35-40 degrees
what is the recommended oblique projection and position that best demonstrates the esophagus? PA, RAO
which body habitus is the stomach almost horizontal? hypersthenic
how much is the body rotated for the PA oblique of the stomach and duodenum? 40-70 degrees
what body habitus is the stomach almost vertical? asthenic
which projection of the stomach best demonstrates diaphragmatic herniation? AP Trendelenburg
Which plane is centered to the grid for the lateral projection of the esophagus? MCP
How much lower should the IR be positioned when the upright position is used for projections of the stomach? 3-6 inches
Which projection of the stomach best demonstrates its anterior and posterior surfaces? lateral
degree of body rotation for an AP oblique stomach ranges from: 30-60 degrees
Which of the following are commonly performed oblique projections of the stomach and duodenum? AP projection, LPO PA projection, RAO
the muscular opening between the stomach and the duodenum is termed? pyloric sphincter
the stomach wall is composed how many layers? 4
the contraction waves by which the digestive tube moves its contents toward the rectum is called? peristalsis
functions of the stomach include? storage of food and chemical breakdown of food
What projection will best demonstrate the fundus of the stomach? AP Oblique, LPO
the patient prep for a morning stomach exam is? food and fluid are withheld after midnight
the expanded portion of the terminal esophagus is called? cardiac antrum
the folds of the thick inner lining of the stomach is called? rugae
for all projections of the esophagus, the top of the IR is positioned at the level of the mouth
at which level is the IR centers for a Pa projection of the stomach and duodenum? L1/L2
Which projection best demonstrates the colon right colic flexure? PA oblique, RAO
what projection of the colon best demonstrates the lateral aspect of the ascending colon and the medial aspect of the descending colon when the colon is inflated with air? Left Lateral decubitus
The CR on an LPO of the colon enters 1-2" laterl to the MSP on the elevated side
Which exam best demonstrates polyps in the colon? Double contrast BE
Which BE projections is the CR entering the level of the iliac crests? AP, RAO, Right lateral decubitus
The main functions of the large intestine are: Reabsoprtion of fluids and elimination of waste products
the visualization of which structure usually indicates the completion of a small bowel series? cecum
in which BE projection is the CR directed perpendicularly to the MCP at the level of the ASIS Lateral or cross table lateral
the pouches in the large intestines are called? haustra
which of the following exams routinely require the use of time markers? small intestine
the wall of the colon is composed of how many layers? 4
volvulus is? twisting of the bowel on itself
direct injection of contrast into the duodenum is called? enteroclysis
which of the following contrast mediums are used for exams of the GI tract? Air, BaSO4, Water soluble non-ionic iodine
when inserting the tip for a BE what is required? Exhalation and sim's position
methods of radiographically examining the colon include single contrast and double contrast
how many degrees is the patient rotate for an RAO of the large intestine 35-45 degrees
Which barium enema projection usually does not require that the transverse colon be included in the image? AP axial
which structure is of primary interest for the LPO projection of the barium enema? right colic/hepatic flexure
when placing an enema tip, how far into the rectum should the tip be placed? no more than 4"
the BE bag should hang how far above the anus? 18-24"
the opening between the small and large intestines is called? ileocecal valve
how many degrees and in what direction should the Cr be directed for the AP axial projection for a barium enema? 30-40 degrees cephalad
the veriform appendix of the colon is attached to the? cecum
Created by: 671470335