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Psychology Ch.15

view of mental illness in which odd behavior, hearing voices, or talking to oneself was attributed to evil spirits infesting the body demonic model
view of mental illness as due to a physical disorder requiring medical treatment medical model
institution for people with mental illnesses crated in the 15th century asylum
approach to mental illness calling for dignity, kindness, and respect for those with mental illness moral treatment
1960s and 1970s governmental policy that focused on releasing hospitalized psychiatric patients into the community and closing mental hospitals deinstitutionalization
scholars who argue that psychiatric diagnoses exert powerful negative effects on people's perceptions and behaviors labeling theorists
diagnostic system containing the American Psychiatric Association (APA) criteria for mental disorders Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
percentage of people within a population who have a specific mental disorder prevalence
dimension of functioning axis
co-occurence of two or more diagnoses within the same person comorbidity
model in which a mental disorder differs from normal functioning in kind rather than degree categorical model
model in which a mental disorder differs from normal functioning in degree rather than kind dimensional model
legal defense proposing that people shouldn't be held legally responsible for their actions if they weren't of "sound mind" when committing them insanity defense
procedure of placing some people with mental illnesses in a psychiatric hospital or other facility based on their potential danger to themselves or others, or their inability to care for themselves involuntary commitment
condition marked by physical symptoms that suggest an underlying medical illness, but that are actually psychological in origin somatoform disorder
an individual's continual preoccupation with the notion that he has a serious physical disease hypochondriasis
continual feelings of worry, anxiety, physical tension, and irritability across many areas on life functioning generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
brief, intense episode of extreme fear characterized by sweating, dizziness, light-headedness, racing heartbeat, and feelings of impending death or going crazy panic attack
repeated and unexpected panic attacks, along with either persistent concerns about future attacks or a change in personal behavior in an attempt to avoid them panic disorder
intense fear of an object or situation that's greatly out of proportion to its actual threat phobia
fear of being in a place or situation from which escape is difficult or embarrassing, or in which help is unavailable in the event of a panic attack agoraphobia
intense fear of objects, places, or situations that is greatly out of proportion to their actual threat specific phobia
marked fear of public appearances in which embarrassment or humiliation seems likely social phobia
marked emotional disturbance after experiencing or witnessing a severely stressful event posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
condition marked by repeated and lengthy (at least one hour per day) immersion in obsessions, compulsions, or both obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
persistent idea, thought, or impulse that is unwanted and inappropriate, causing marked distress obsession
repetitive behavior or mental act performed to reduce or prevent stress compulsion
fear of anxiety-related sensations anxiety sensitivity
state in which a person experiences a lingering depressed mood or diminished interest in pleasurable activities, along with symptoms that include weight loss and sleep difficulties major depressive episode
theory that depression is caused by negative beliefs and expectations cognitive model of depression
tendency to feel helpless in the face of events we can't control learned helplessness
experience marked by dramatically elevated mood, decreased need for sleep, increased energy, inflated self-esteem, increased talkativeness, and irresponsible behavior manic episode
condition marked by a history of at least one manic episode bipolar disorder
condition in which personality traits, appearing first in adolescence, are inflexible, stable, expressed in a wide variety of situations, and lead to distress or impairment personality disorder
condition marked by extreme instability in mood, identity, and impulse control borderline personality disorder
condition marked by superficial charm, dishonesty, manipulativeness, self-centeredness, and risk taking psychopathic personality
condition marked by a lengthy history of irresponsible and/or illegal actions antisocial personality disorder (ASPD)
condition involving disruptions in consciousness, memory, identity, or perception dissociative disorder
condition marked by multiple episodes of depersonalization depersonalization disorder
inability to recall important personal information - most often related to a stressful experience - that can't be explained by ordinary forgetfulness dissociative amnesia
sudden, unexpected travel away from home or the workplace, accompanied by amnesia for significant life events dissociative fugue
condition characterized by the presence of two or more distinct identities or personality states that recurrently take control of the person's behavior dissociative identity disorder (DID)
severe disorder of thought and emotion associated with a loss of contact with reality schizophrenia
strongly held, fixed belief that has no basis in reality delusion
psychological problem reflecting serious distortions in reality psychotic symptom
sensory perception that occurs in the absence of an external stimulus hallucination
motor problem, including extreme resistance to complying with simple suggestions, holding the body in bizarre or rigid postures, or curling up in a fetal position catatonic symptom
perspective proposing that mental disorders are a joint product of a genetic vulnerability, called a diathesis, and stressors that trigger this vulnerability diathesis-stress model
disorder (also known as autism) marked by severe deficits in language, social bonding, and imagination, usually accompanied by mental retardation autistic disorder
childhood condition marked by excessive inattention, impulsivity, and activity attention-deficity/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Created by: rlhaas
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