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Psychology 200

Personality

QuestionAnswer
What are the 4 personality theories? 1-Psychoanalytic 2-Trait 3-Humanistic 4- Social/Behavioral
What is the psychoanalytic theory? Name 3 psychologists dealing with this. Personality is shaped by instinctive and unconscious influences. 1-Freud 2-Jung 3-Adler
Freud's 3 levels of the mind 1. Conscious 2. Preconscious 3. Unconscious (like an iceburg)
What is catharsis and what could bring about this? -it is the release of bottled up emotions -talking about problems could bring about this. Famous Study: Anna O. talking through problems made her feel better.
Who believed that physical symptoms could have an unconscious psychological origin? Freud.
What did Freud use free association and dream analysis to do? uncover hidden problems
Freud's 3 aspects 1) ID - pleasure seeker 2) Super Ego- rule oriented 3) Ego - balance, mediates conflict between the other two.
List the 7 Defense Mechanisms & Name the psychologist that went with them. 1) Repression 2) Rationalization 3) Projection 4) Reaction Formation 5) Denial 6) Displacement 7) Regression Psychologist: Freud
What is repression? pushing troubling thoughts into unconscious
What is rationalization? excusing unacceptable motive w/ acceptable
What is projection? attribute short comings and faults to others
What is reaction formation? hiding unacceptable motives with opposite
What is denial? refusal to acknowledge troubling realities
What is displacement? directing unacceptable impulses at an easier target
What is regression? reverting to earlier, easier developmental state
Carl Jung -psychoanalytic theorist -believed humans have an individual unconscious & shared collective unconscious
Carl Jung's ideas found in cultures certain ideas are common to all cultures: -God -Religion -Government -Satan -Family -Military
Alfred Adler's beliefs -believed that BIRTH ORDER strongly influenced personalities -believed the source of human striving was to compensate for FEELINGS OF INFERIORITY
What are traits? personal characteristics that remain fairly consistent across situations.
Gordon Allport (Trait theories) 6 common traits ppl share, but in diff amts 1- Theoretical: Thinking 2- Economic: practical 3- Social: Communal 4- Esthetic: Artistic 5- Political: Power 6- Religious: Spiritual
Costa & McCrae's Big Five Traits 1. Extraversion 2. Agreeableness 3. Conscientiousness 4. Neuroticism 5. Openness Low Scorers: High Scorers: Loner, quiet talkative, joiner Suspicious trusting lazy, disorg. hard-working, org Calm worried, self-conscious Conventional imaginative, creative
Humanistic Theorists Abraham Maslow & Carl Rogers
Abraham Maslow -believed that humans are basically good -focused on healthy people
Maslow's Characteristics of Self-actualizers -acceptance of self, others, & the world -spontaneous & natural -non-conformists -problem-focused, not self-focused -freshness of appreciation -care for others -gentle sense of humor comfortable with solitude -"peak" experiences of joy
Carl Rogers believed that people are unhappy because.. they try to please others & adopt others' values.
Roger's 3 ways to help ppl find personal values: 1- unconditional positive regard 2- non-direct approach 3- reflection of client's feelings
Social/Behavioral Theorists B.F. Skinner & Albert Bandura
Skinner believed.. Personality= behavior, shaped by person's "history of reinforcement & punishment"
Bandura believed ... -personality is formed through social influences- observation & vicarious reinforcement -behavior is controlled by feelings of self-efficacy.
What is self-efficacy? the belief that we can do something.
What are the two types of personality assessments, & examples of each? 1) Projective Tests: -word associations -pic test -ink blots 2) Self-report Tests: -Neo-Pi -Myers-Briggs Personality Inventory
What is abnormal psychology? behavior not found in the majority of the population.
4 Criteria: 1. Deviance- socially unacceptable 2. Distress- personal misery 3. Dysfunction- behavioral impairment 4. Danger- to self & others
DSM: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders used as a guide book to diagnose various mental disorders
Anxiety Disorders -Panic Disorders: recurrent anxiety attacks -OCD: thoughts & irresistable impulses & rituals -Phobias: intense, irrational fears
3 most common thoughts in OCD Violence, contamination, & doubt
3 Common Phobias acrophobia: heights claustrophobia: enclosed spaces agorophobia: bad happenings
Mood Disorders characterized by disruptive disturbances in mood and emotional state
Major depressive disorder, aka "common cold" of mental illness -dysphoric mood *Dysthmic disorder: less severe form
Bipolar Disorder -extreme mood swings *Cyclothymic disorder: less severe form
*30,000 annually in US *600,000 attempts *2/3 "completers" are male *3/4 "attempters" are female *males use violent means (gun, noose) *females use less violent (pills, poison) *highest rate among older, white males Suicide Stats
Suicide warning signs *substance abuse *relationship prob *suicidal talk *prolonged illness *prior attempts *econ/work probs *depression/emo probs *loneliness/living alone *has experienced a sense of stressful events
Suicide Intervention 1. Establish + relationship (vent) 2. clarify the prob 3. Access suicide potention (plan?) 4. Mobilize person's resources (plans, goals, + track) 5. Formulate a plan 6. Follow up (keep checkin on them)
Schizophrenia a deterioration of functioning characterized by sever distortions of thought perception and mood, by bizarre behavior, & by social w/drawal (psychosis-split from reality)
4 major symptoms w/ schizophrenia 1. Delusions (+) 2. Hallucinations (+) 3. Disorganized thinkin & speech(-) 4. Disorganized or catatonic behavior (-) *Negative Symptom: Reduces functioning
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) (aka Multiple personalities) 2 or more distinct personalities in one body
5 most frequent seen alters in DID *children *protectors *expressors of forbidden impulses *those based on loved ones *avengers of past abusers
What percentage of DID cases are linked to sever abuse in early childhood? 95%
Created by: 825500443