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# Cog Psych Test 5

Question | Answer |
---|---|

Problem | An obstacle between a present state and a goal state in which it is not immediately obvious how to overcome the obstacle between the initial (present)a state and goal states. |

The difference between a well-defined problem and an ill-defined problem | Well-defined problems usually have a correct answer and the solution will be achieved by applying a certain procedure correctly. An ill-defined problem is a problem for where there is not necessarily one correct answer or goal state. |

Gestalt psychologists consider problem solving as a... | ...process of restructuring (a shift in perception). |

Insight | The sudden realization of a problem’s solution |

Metcalf and Wiebe’s (1987) study | People did insight and non insight problems. Progress on "nearness to a solutions" was steady for non-insight, but was non existent and then sudden at the end for insight. |

Functional fixedness | The tendency to use objects in only their most usual way. Most commonly occurs when an object is very common and has a very specific use. |

Luchin’s water jug problem | Those participants who did the first 6 problems developed a mental set that continued on for the next two problems. It demonstrated that once a person develops a mental set, it is difficult for them to switch to a more efficient solution. |

Newell and Simon | Were early pioneers in designing computer programs that could solve problems. Their research program was based on the idea that problem solving is a process that involves searching for a way to reach a goal. |

Problem space | Newell and Simon's term. Includes all possible states that could occur when solving a problem. The elements of the problem space include an initial state, intermediate state, operators, and goal state. |

Initial state | 1st state in the problem space. The conditions at the beginning of the problem. |

Intermediate state | 2nd state in the problem space. The conditions that occur during the steps toward solving the problem |

The operators | Rules that govern the actions that one can take in reaching a solution to the problem. |

Goal state | 3rd and final state in the problem space. The solution to the problem. |

Means-end analysis | A problem solving approach in which a person repeatedly determines the difference between the current state and the goal state, as well as finding a way to reduce that difference. |

Intermediate states sometimes take you... | ...further from the goal. It is sometimes necessary to backtrack in problem solving. |

Analogical problem solving | Using the solution of one similar problem to help solve another problem |

the Duncker radiation problem | Hard problem that was solved easier when people were given another problem with a provided and similar solution first. |

Target problem | The problem to be solved. |

Source problem | Helps discover the solution to the target problem. |

Analogical problem solving involves which three steps | (1) Noticing, (2) Mapping out the corresponding aspects of the problems, and (3) Applying the mapping to generate similar solutions. |

The most difficult step in analogical problem solving is what? | Noticing |

Surface features | The specific or surface elements that make up the problem (material objects or people) |

Structural features | Underlying principal that governs the solution |

Experts categorize problems based on... | ...general principals that link one problem to another |

Non-experts tend to categorize problems based on... | ...objects |

Divergent thinking | Involves generating many possible solutions to a problem. An example is Finke’s study in which he had participants invent useful objects with randomly assigned object parts |

Convergent thinking | Is used in solving problems that have one correct answer. |

Perseveration | Difficulty in shifting to a new behavior when it is no longer working. |

Deductive reasoning | Involves sequences of statements called syllogisms. We make definite conclusions based on deductive reasoning |

Inductive reasoning | Involves arriving at conclusions about what is probably true, based on evidence. We make probable conclusions based on inductive reasoning. Involves observational premises |

Syllogism | Two statements called premises, followed by a third statement called the conclusion. |

A syllogism is valid... | ...When its conclusion follows logically from the two premises. |

Categorical syllogisms | Two premises that begin with all, no, or some, followed by a conclusion. |

Atmosphere effect | The presence of the words all, some, or no in the premises of a deductive argument can influence the person’s evaluation of the validity of the conclusion of the argument. |

Belief bias | Judging a syllogism as valid because the conclusion is believable |

In a conditional syllogism "If p then q" the "p" is referred to as the _________ and the "q" is referred to as the _________ | Antecedent, concequent |

Modus ponens | Affirming the antecedent |

Modus tollens | Denying the concequent |

people exhibit the best performance in judging validity for syllogisms that involve... | ...modus ponens (affirming the antecedent) |

Wason 4 card problem | 4 cards, flip 2 over to falsify the statement. The key to solving is the falsification principle |

Results of abstract version of Wason's 4 card problem vs concrete version | People do much better with concrete examples. |

Permission schema | If a person satisfies condition A, then they get to carry out action B |

Availability heuristic | When people make estimates of the likelihood or frequency of events, their estimates are influenced by the ease with which relevant examples or information can be remembered. |

Illusory correlations | An illusory correlation between two events that appears to exist, when in reality there is no correlation or it is weaker than it is assumed to be. |

Neglecting base rates occurs when... | ...people make their decision to bet on their favorite team in a playoff game rather than basing their bet on mathematically based statistical probabilities. |

Conjunction rule | The probability of two events co-occurring is equal to or less than the probability of either event occurring alone. The probability cannot be larger than either one of them alone. |

Law of large numbers | the larger the number of individuals that are randomly drawn from a population, the more representative the resulting group will be of the entire population. |

Failure to consider the law of large numbers is generally due to errors concerning the... | Representativeness heuristic |

Confirmation bias | The tendency to selectively look for information that conforms to a hypothesis and to overlook information that argues against it. |

The utility theory | An approach to decision making that states that optimal decision-making occurs when the outcome of the decision causes the maximum expected utility, where utility refers to outcomes that are desirable. |

Mental simulations | models that people create about the predicted outcomes of particular decisions in their head. |