Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't Know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Psychology test 4

Ch. 12 and 15

Personality an individual's unique set of consistent behavioral traits
Personality Trait a durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations
Factor Analysis correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables
Extraversion outgoing, sociable, upbeat, friendly, assertive, and gregarious
Neuroticism anxious, hostile, self-conscious, insecure, and vulnerable
Openness to Experience curiosity, flexibility, vivid fantasy, imaginativeness, artistic sensitivity, and unconventional attitudes
Agreeableness sympathetic, trusting, cooperative, modest, straightforward
Conscientiousness disciplined, well organized, punctual, and dependable
Psychodynamic Theories include all the diverse theories, descended from the work of Sigmund Freud, that focus on unconscious mental forces
Id primitive, instinctive component of personality that operate according to the pleasure principle
Pleasure Principle demands immediate gratification of its urges
Primary-Process Thinking what the id engages, primitive, illogical, irrational, and fantasy oriented
Ego the decision making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle (works to take the the unbridled desires of the id)
Reality Principle seeks to delay gratification of the id's urges until appropriate outlets and situations can be found
Secondary-Process Thinking engaged by the ego, strives to avoid negative consequences from society and its representatives
Superego moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what represents right and wrong
Conscious consists or whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time
Preconscious contains material just beneath the surface of awareness that can easily be retrieved
Unconscious contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of the conscious but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior
Defense Mechanisms largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt
Rationalization creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior
Repression keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious
Projection attributing one's own thoughts, feelings or motives to another
Displacement diverting emotional feelings (usually anger) from their original source to substitute target
Reaction Formation behaving in a way that's exactly opposite of one's true feelings
Regression a reversion to immature patterns of behavior
Identification bolstering self-esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group
Sublimation when unconscious, unacceptable impulses are channeled into socially acceptable, perhaps even admirable, behaviors
Personal Unconscious houses material that isn't within one's conscious awareness because is has been repressed or forgotten
Collective Unconscious a storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from people's ancestral past
Archetypes emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning
Striving for superiority as a universal way to adapt, improve oneself, and master life's challenges
Compensation involves efforts to overcome imagined or real inferiorities by developing one's abilities
Inferiority Complex exaggerated feelings of weakness
Behaviorism a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior
Reciprocal Determinism idea that internal mental events, external environmental events, and overt behavior all influence ones behavior
Observable Learning occurs when an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models
Model a person whose behavior is observed by another
Self efficiency refers to one's belief about one's ability to perform behaviors that should leave to expected outcomes
Humanism theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth
Self Concept a collection of beliefs about one's own nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior
Incongruence the degree of disparity between one's self concept and one's actual experience
Hierarchy of Needs a systematic arrangement of needs, according to priority, in which basic needs must be met before less basic needs are aroused
Self Actualization the need to fulfill one's potential
Self Actualizing Persons people with exceptionally healthy personalities, marked by continued personality growth
Biological Perspectives behavior is largely determined by evolutionary adaptations, the wiring of the brain, and heredity
Narcissism a personality trait marked by an inflated sense of importance, a need for attention and admiration, a sense of entitlement, and tendency to exploit others
Terror Management Theory explain why people need self-esteem
Mortality Salience degree to which subjects mortality is prominent in their minds
Individualism involves putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group memberships
Collectivism involves putting group goals ahead of personal goals and defining one's identity in terms of groups one belongs to
Self Enhancement involves focusing on positive feedback from others, exaggerating one's strength, and seeing oneself in as above average
Self Report Inventories personality tests that ask individuals to answer a series of questions about their characteristic behavior
Projective Test ask participants to respond to vague, ambiguous stimuli in ways that may reveal the subject's needs, feelings, and personality traits
Medical Model proposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a disease
Thomas Szasz's theory disease or illness can affect only the body; hence there can be no mental illness...minds can be sick only in the sense that joke or economies are sick
Diagnosis involves distinguishing one illness from another
Etiology refers to the apparent causation and developmental history of an illness
Prognosis is a forecast about the probable course of an illness
Deviance behavior deviates from what their society considers acceptable
Maladaptive Behavior everyday adaptive behavior is impaired
Personal Distress people who are troubled by depression or anxiety disorder
Value Judgments reflect prevailing cultural values, social trends, and political forces as well as knowledge
Comorbidity the coexistence of two or more disorders
Epidemiology the study of the distribution of mental of physical disorders in a population
Prevalence refers to the percentage of the population that exhibit a disorder during a specified time period
Anxiety Disorders class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety
Generalized Anxiety Disorder marked by chronic, high levels of anxiety that is not tied to any specific threat
Phobic Disorder marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that present no realistic danger
Panic Disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occur suddenly and unexpectedly
Agoraphobia a fear of going out in public places
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder marked by persistent, uncontrollable intrusions of unwanted thoughts and urges to engage in senseless rituals
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder involves enduring psychological disturbance attributed to the experience of a major traumatic event
Concordance Rate indicates the percentage of twin pairs or other pairs of relatives who exhibit the same disorder
Inhibited Temperament shyness, timidity, and wariness and appears to have a strong genetic base
Mowers Theory of Conditioning and Learning an originally neutral stimulus may be paired with a frightening event so that it becomes a conditioned stimulus eliciting anxiety
Seligman's Theory preparedness - the idea that people are biologically prepared by their evolutionary history to acquire some fears much more easily than others
Ohman and Mineka Theory Evolved module for fear learning - module is automatically activated by stimuli related to past survival threats in evolutionary history
Dissociative Disorders disorders in which people lose contact with portions of their consciousness or memory, resulting in disruptions in their sense of identity
Dissociative Amnesia sudden loss of memory for important personal info that is too extensive to be due to normal forgetting (single traumatic events of for an extended period of time surrounded the events)
Dissociative Fugue people lose their memory for their entire lives along with their sense of personal identity (forget their name, family, where they live, where they work)
Dissociate Identity Disorder involves the coexistence in one person of two or more largely complete, and usually different personalities (multiple personality disorder)
Mood Disorders disorders marked by emotional disturbances of varied kinds that may spill over to disrupt physical, perceptual, social, and thought process
Unipolar Mood Disorders experience emotional extremes as just one end of the mood continuum (Depression)
Bipolar Mood Disorders vulnerable to emotional extremes at both ends of the mood continuum
Major Depressive Disorder people show persistent feelings of sadness and despair and loss of interest in previous sources of pleasure
Anhedonia diminished ability to experience pleasure
Schizophrenic Disorders disorders marked by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and deterioration of adaptive behavior
Delusions false beliefs that are maintained even though they clearly are out of teach with reality
Delusions of grandeur people think they are famous or important
Hallucinations sensory perceptions that occur in the absence of a real, external stimulus or are gross distortions of perceptual input
Paranoid Schizophrenia dominated by delusions of persecution, along with delusions or grandeur
Catatonic Schizophrenia marked by striking motor disturbances, ranging from muscular rigidity to random motor activity
Disorganized Schizophrenia a particularly severe deterioration or adaptive behavior seen
Undifferentiated Schizophrenia marked by idiosyncratic mixtures of schizophrenic symptoms
Negative Schizophrenic Symptoms involves behavior deficits, such as flattened emotions, social withdrawal, apathy, impaired attention, and poverty of speech
Positive Symptoms involves behavioral excess or peculiarities, such as hallucinations, delusions, bizarre behavior, and wild flights of ideas
Dopamine Hypothesis asserts that dopamine activity is the neurochemical basis for schizophrenia
Expressed Emotion the degree to which a relative of patient displays highly critical or emotionally overinvolved attitudes toward the patient
Personality Disorders disorders marked by extreme inflexible personality traits that cause subjective distress or impaired social and occupational functioning
Categorical Diagnostic Approach assumes that people can reliably be placed in nonoverlappping diagnostic categories, which really isn't the case for personality disorders
Dimensional Diagnostic Approach particularly strong for the personality disorders
Antisocial Personality Disorder marked by impulsive, callous, manipulative, aggressive, and irresponsible behavior that reflects a failure to accept social norms
Inanity legal status indicating that person can't be held responsible for his or her actions because of a mental illness
Involuntary Commitment people are hospitalized in psychiatric facilities against their will
Relativistic Views argue that the criteria of mental illness vary greatly across cultures
Pancultural Views argue that the criteria of mental illness are much the same around the world and that basic standards or normality are universal across cultures
Culture-Bound Disorders abnormal syndromes found only in a few cultural groups
Eating Disorders severe disturbances in eating behavior characterized by preoccupation with weight and unhealthy efforts to control weight
Anorexia Nervosa involves intense fear of gaining weight, distorted body image, refusal to maintain normal weight, and use of dangerous measures to lose weight
Restricting Type of Anorexia drastically reduce food intake
Binge-eating/Purging Type of Anorexia attempt to lose weight by forcing themselves to vomit after meals, by misusing laxatives and diuretics, and by engaging in excessive exercise
Bulimia Nervosa habitually engaging in out of control overeating followed by unhealthy compensatory efforts such as self-induced vomiting, fasting, abuse of laxatives and diuretics and excessive exercise
Binge-eating Disorder involves distress-inducing eating binges that are not accompanied by purging like bulimia
Representativeness Heuristic basing the estimated probability of an event of how similar it is to the typical prototype of that event
Conjunction fallacy occurs when people estimate that the odds of two uncertain happening together are greater than the odds of either event happening alone
Availability Heuristic which is basing the estimated probability of an events on the ease with which relevant instances come to mind
Created by: ebobbitt29
Popular Psychology sets




Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards