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4.2 Aeronautics


acceleration the rate of change of velocity with respect to time
aileron the controlling surface that regulates an aircraft's roll
airfoil A part or surface, such as a wing, propeller blade, or rudder, whose shape and orientation control stability, direction, lift, thrust, or propulsion.
Angle of Attack the acute angle between the direction of the relative wind and the chord of an airfoil
Aspect Ration the ratio between the wingspan and average chord of a wing
Bernoulli's Principle as the speed of a fluid increases, its pressure decreases
camber a measure of the curvature of the airfoil
chord the width of an airfoil or wing
dihedral angle the angle between an aircraft wing and a horizontal line
drag Resistance of the air (technically a fluid) against the forward movement of an airplane
elevator the controlling surface that regulates an aircraft's pitch
empennage The tail assembly of an aircraft, including the horizontal and vertical stabilizers, elevators, and rudder
flaps Control surfaces attached to the trailing edge of the wing extending outward from the fuselage to the midpoint of each wing. Flaps can increase the lifting efficiency of the wing and decrease stall speed
fluid a gas or liquid that tends to take the shape of its container
force Transferring of energy to an object, typically by pushing or pulling on that object
fuselage The central body of an aircraft where wings and stabilizers are attached
glider an airplane with no attached source of thrust
gravity The force that attracts a body toward the center of the earth or toward any other physical body having mass
heavier-than-air An aircraft of greater weight than the air displaced
horizontal stabilizer An airfoil (usually at the back of an airplane) that resists up and down changes in motion.
hypersonic Relates to speed five or more times that of sound in air
leading edge The front, usually rounded, edge of an airplane wing or airfoil.
lift The force that directly opposes the weight of an airplane and holds the airplane in the air
lighter-than-air An aircraft of less weight than the air displaced
Mach 1 760 MPH. When a plane travels faster than this speed, it is breaking the sound barrier
mass The quantity of matter, which a material contains
Newton's 1st Law Objects at rest stay at rest and objects in motion stay in motion unless an external force is applied. It is known as the law of inertia
Newton's 2nd Law The relationship among an object's mass (m), acceleration (a), and an applied force (F), is Force equals mass times acceleration (F= ma)
Newton's 3rd Law For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
pitch the up or down movement of an aircraft
precise input A method of placing geometric entities at precise x and y coordinates on a plane
propellant A chemical mixture that is burned to produce thrust.
propeller An airfoil mounted on a revolving shaft. It creates low pressure in front of it, thereby moving an aircraft forward because of the high pressure area behind the propeller
propulsion The means by which aircraft and spacecraft are moved forward. It is a combination of factors such as thrust (forward push), lift (upward push), drag (backward pull) and weight (downward pull).
ramjet An engine that can operate only when moving at high speed since it has no moving parts and no device for drawing in air.
rocket engine An engine that produces thrust by expelling hot gases from a rear nozzle
roll The clockwise or counterclockwise rotating motion of an aircraft.
rudder A controlling surface on an aircraft's tail that regulates yaw.
slats Protrusions from the leading edge of a wing that, when combined with the flaps, result in a significant increase in lift.
spoiler Device used to destroy lift. Found on top of the wing and in varying sizes
thrust A force applied to a body to propel it in a desired direction. The force which moves an aircraft through the air.
trailing edge the rear edge of a wing
turbine A rotary engine that extracts energy from fluid turning blades
vertical stabilizer A vertically oriented airfoil at the back of an airplane that resists left and right movements.
velocity A vector quantity that includes the speed and direction of an object
weight The force generated by the gravitational attraction of the earth on the airplane. Lift must be equal to weight in order to sustain flight.
wing The major horizontal surface on an airplane that provides lift.
yaw A side-to-side motion of the nose of the aircraft.
Created by: 2170129
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