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Contrast Media Ch 19

Contrast Media and Special Radiographic Techniques

Negative Contrasts appear black absorbs less radiation than surrounding tissues air & gases
Where air and gas contrast media used GI tract arthrography, myelography, female reproductive system, biliary system.
Iodinated Media heavy element, positive contrast, appears white, absorbs more radiation than surrounding tissues.
Water Soluble Iodinated Compounds carbon based organic chemicals composed of molecules containing iodine atoms and combos of other atoms.
How water soluble iodinated compounds can be administered orally, vaginally, itravenously, intrarterially
How water soluble iodinated compounds are characterized concentration, osmolality, viscosity, toxicity
Iodine concentration determines the degree of xray attenuation
high concentrations of iodine = greater viscosity, osmolality and greater toxicity
iodine osmolality the number of particles in solution per kg of water
osmolality of human blood 300 milliosmoles per kg
osmolality of water soluble iodinated contrast 300-1000 milliosmoles/kg
ionic media the molecules within the contrast media dissociate into two charged particles when placed in solution
non ionic media molecules remain whole in the solution
1.5 - 3.2 3 iodine- dissociate 2 particles. Ionic. Creates other reactions within patient
3- 3.1 3 iodine. Does not dissociate. Nonionic. Safer for patients.
HOCA high osmolality contrast agents
LOCA low osmolality contrast agents
viscosity a measure of resistance of a fluid to flow
determines viscosity the # of particles in the solution size of particles in solution attractions among the particles specific nature of the particles in the solution
toxicity how harmful it is to the body
toxicity determined by chemical configuration iodine concentration osmolality ionization characteristics rate of injection dosage
lowest toxicity factors nonionic, low osmolality, low iodine concentration, slow injection rate.
Reactions due to osmolality dehydration of surrounding blood cells & tissues increase in pulmonary artery pressure increase in blood volume increase in cardiac output
reactions due to ionization seizure of cardiac dysfunction sense of warmth in pelvis lightheadedness N/V anaphylactic responses
reactions due to molecular toxicity excessive dose, renal insufficiency, medication incompatibility,
BUN ranges 6 - 20 mg/dL
Creatinine Ranges .6 - 1.5 mg/dL
History to get for iodinated contrast media age, allergies, history of asthma, routine meds, vital signs, BUN/creatinine levels. Diabetes, heart disease.
Allergic reactions to contrast media restlessness and sense of apprehension increased HR weakness/pallor cool, clammy skin itching/rash throat constriction dyspnea drop in BP greater than 30 mm/Hg below baseline systolic pressure
Expected side effects from contrast media metallic taste warmth in the body
Excretory urography IVP/IVU functional exam of the urinary system through IV injection of contrast
Nephrogram blush film when kidneys are beginning to fill with contrast.
Cystography exam of the internal contours of the bladder and the urethra through retrograde injection of contrast.
Retrograde urography exam of the ureters and kidneys through retrograde injection of contrast.
myelographyam exam to visualize internal structures of the spinal canal, through intrathecal injection.
contrast arthrography exam to visualize joints to detect disease or injury through the direct injection of contrast.
Created by: 671470335