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RADS Pathology

RADS Pathology 1-3

QuestionAnswer
According to the CDC, in the 25-44 year age range, the top two causes of death are: Unintentional Injuries & Malignant Neoplasms
The prediction of the course and end of a disease and an outlook based on that prediction best define its: Prognosis
A disease that presents slowly and lasts over a long period of time is said to be: Chronic
The relative ease with which an organism can overcome normal bodily defenses against the organism refers to: Virulence
Which of the following types of disease classifications is usually associated with the normal aging process? Degenerative
Sickness sufficient to interfere with normal daily routines is termed: Morbidity
Providing a terminal pancreatic cancer patient with a self-controlled morphine drip to ease pain is an example of: Palliative Treatment
Which of the following would be considered a symptom of a disease process? Nausea
The study of the cause of a disease is: Etiology
Which of these terms refers to death rates? Mortality
The patient's gangrenous toe is considered a/n _____ medical problem, while the underlying cause, his uncontrolled diabetes, is considered a/n _____ medical problem. Acute / Chronic
Which examination would best demonstrate a Pott's fracture? AP, Oblique, and Lateral Ankle
Which of the following is considered an unstable cervical spine injury? Fracture of the arch of C-2 with anterior dislocation of C-2 on C-3
Fractures that occur at sites of maximal strain on a bone, usually in connection with unaccustomed, activity, are classified as _____ fractures. Stress/Fatigue
Demonstration of a pneumothorax is best accomplished by making the exposure: In an erect PA position on expiration
Linear, depressed, and basilar refer to types of: Skull Fractures
trauma xray important to use exposure factors that demonstrate details about surrounding soft tissue as well as details about the bony anatomy. If the _____ is visible on a lateral elbow radiograph, the radiographer should consider it probable that a Posterior Fat Pad
A fracture of the skeletal system in which the bone has penetrated the skin is termed: Open
Place these in rank order of clinical significance from least to most critical. Concussion - Contusion - Coma
Free air in the abdomen is best demonstrated with the patient in an erect position. But if a trauma patient cannot stand erect, which of the following images will most reliably demonstrate pneumoperitoneum? Left Lateral Decubitus Abdomen
Which medical center is best equipped to handle medical imaging and treatment of multiple trauma victims following a train wreck? Type I Medical Center
A general term to describe the many types of cellular changes that occur in response to disease is: Lesion
A disease such as Tay-Sachs syndrome that is transmitted genetically is termed: Hereditary
What are the two most common electrolytes found in humans? Sodium & Potassium
Pathologies with unknown causes are described as: Idiopathic
Hospital workers with poor hygiene put the patients at risk for: Nosocomial Infections
You are preparing to radiograph a patient's left arm that has been in a cast for the past 3 months. As the cast is removed, you notice that the left arm is noticeably smaller than the right arm. This is probably because: ... disuse atrophy will cause the muscle and other soft tissue to shrink while casted.
Which of the following would best differentiate a Colles' Fracture from a Smith's Fracture? PA and Lateral Wrist
Shoulder dislocations are most commonly displaced: Anteriorly
Tension Pneumothorax requires immediate medical intervention (insertion of a chest tube) because the great vessels can be closed off and circulation stopped when the: Mediastinal soft tissue structures shift away from the lung with the pneumothorax
Demonstration of acute cerebral bleeding leading to a hematoma is best done by: CT
Which portion of the GI system is most frequently damaged by blunt trauma of the abdomen? Duodenum
Spontaneous blowout of a bleb could lead to a(n): Pneumothorax
Which of the following radiographs best demonstrates a blow-out fracture? Parietoacanthial / Modified Waters
A fracture that heals in a faulty position is termed: Malunion
A contusion formed on the side of the head where trauma occurs is called a Coup Lesion
Linear, depressed, and basilar refer to types of: Skull Fractures
5. 5. A lab report indicates that the patient's blood sugar is elevated. This is an example of a: Sign
A headache is an example of a: Symptom
Which of these fractures can only occur in children? Greenstick & Physis (Salter Harris)
Which of the following is(are) clinical evidence of child abuse? -Multiple injuries in various stages of healing -Injury pattern inconsistent with the explanation of the injury -Injuries in unexpected areas of the body, for example in areas where self- inflicted or typical accidental wounds are not likely.
Fractures that occur at sites of maximal strain on a bone, usually in connection with unaccustomed, activity, are classified as _____ fractures. Stress/Fatigue
Provisional callus is mainly composed of _____ and is present at a fracture site _____ following the injury. Cartilage / One Week
Which of the following is the most clinically significant facial bone injury? LeFort III
Rheumatoid Arthritis is an example of a: Inflammatory Disease
If 4,000 cases of a given disease are found in the inhabitants of a given population, its _____ is defined. Prevalence
A compression fracture of the lumbar spine that results from steroid treatments for pain reduction of arthritis would be an example of _____ disease. Iatrogenic
A general term to describe the many types of cellular changes that occur in response to disease is: Lesion
The study of the cause of a disease is: Etiology
The first critical period for trauma victims is seconds after injury. When accident victims die immediately at the scene, it is usually because of: Lacerations of the brain, spinal cord, heart, or great vessels
Which of the following procedures would best demonstrate Legg-Perthes Disease? MRI scan of the pelvis
Place these in rank order of clinical significance from least to most critical. Concussion - Contusion - Coma
Which of the following is true about osteosarcoma? -Also known as osteogenic sarcoma -Most patients are younger than 20 years -Highly malignant with poor prognosis
The type of arthritis believed to be an autoimmune disease is: Rheumatoid Arthritis
Which of the following is characterized by a central radiolucent osteolytic core called a nidus? Osteoid Osteoma
A patient suffers an open fracture and extensive lacerations of his hand during an industrial accident. Unfortunately extensive infection complicates his recovery. The patient develops arthritis because of the injury. This arthritis is: Infectious Artthritis
A freely movable joint is classified as: Diarthrodial
Specialized cells responsible for the formation of bone are termed: Osteoblasts
The most common type of arthritis affecting both sexes equally is: Osteoarthritis
Approximately 90% of spondylolisthesis occurs at: L5-S1
The most common metastatic site(s) is/are the: Spine
Bone marrow is located anatomically within the: Medullary Canal
An abnormal lateral curvature of the spine is referred to as: Scoliosis
The formation of extra digits is termed: Polydactyly
The end portion of a long bone is referred to as the: Epiphysis
Failure of the two spinal lamina to fuse and form the spinous process in the lumbosacral region is: Spina Bifida Occulta
The human body normally contains: 206 Bones
Which of the following includes simultaneous osteolytic and osteoblastic bone activity, leading to radiographic demonstration of less dense and more dense bone tissue resulting from the same disease process? Paget's Disease
The most common benign bone tumor is the: Osteochondroma
The most common inherited disorder that results in dwarfism is: Achondroplasia
If you identify a malignant bone tumor on a radiograph, it is most likely: A secondary or metastatic cancer site with a primary cancer site elsewhere in the body
A freely movable joint is classified as: Diarthrodial
Osteomyelitis is a disease of the skeletal system that is: Inflammatory
Untreated osteomyelitis can be serious because the infected bone tissue may become necrotic forming a _____ or dense devascularized bone segment. Sequestrum
Rickets, which affects children, is a type of: Osteomalacia
Osteophytes are associated with: Osteoarthritis
The most common inherited disorder that results in dwarfism is: Achondroplasia
A patient with hyperparathyroidism has increased risk of: -Renal Stones -Bone Resorption Demonstrated in Distal Phalanges -Loss of Calcium From Teeth
A "sunray" pattern of bone spicules from a central mass, indicating rapid, aggressive growth, is characteristic of: Osteosarcoma
Common metastatic sites include the spine, skull, ribs, pelvis, and femurs because: They have active red bone marrow.
Hyperactive osteoclasts with hypoactive osteoblasts would result in: Decreased bone tissue formation
18 yr old.been taking aspirin to relieve the pain. You should be alert to evidence of _____ on his radiographs. Osteoid Osteoma
In initial clinical evaluations, osteogenesis imperfecta can be easily mistaken for: Child Abuse
All of the following are malignant neoplasms of the skeletal system EXCEPT: Osteoma
Patients immobilized for long periods of time, post-menopausal women, athletes abusing steroids, and Cushing Syndrome patients are all at relatively high risk of developing: Osteoporosis
Which of the following statements about ankylosing spondylitis is/are TRUE: -More common in males -Starts in the SI joints and progresses superiorly -Also known as "bamboo spine"
Untreated osteomyelitis can be serious because the infected bone tissue may become necrotic forming a _____ or dense devascularized bone segment. Sequestrum
The trabecular pattern in the fingertips of a hand radiograph is caused by the honeycomb-like: Cancellous Bone
Chronic, progressive inflammation of the synovium that eventually destroys the articular cartilage and erodes the joint is: Rheumatoid Arthritis
The term MARBLE BONE is often associated with the skeletal disorder: Osteopetrosis
Uric acid deposits known as tophi are associated with: Gouty Arthritis
The outer sheath or covering on a typical bone is called the: Periosteum
Which of the following would most likely be diagnosed during a pediatric rotation? Ewing Sarcoma
Loss of elasticity of the bronchial walls as a result of bacterial infection can result in: Bronchiectasis
The primary radiographic indication of bronchogenic carcinoma is: Atelectasis or pneumonitis from airwary obstruction
Which of the following is the most comon type of bacterial pneumonia? Pneumococcal
Alveolar walls are destroyed creating large bullae distal to the terminal bronchioles. The patient reports he feels like he can't exhale all his breath before he has to breathe again. These findings are suggestive of: Emphysema
Bony structures such as the clavicles can be removed from the apices of the lungs by use of what radiographic position? Lordotic method
Exocrine secretions plug the patient's bronchial system and the lab results indicate increased salt levels in the sweat. There is hyperinflation of the lungs and a history of recurrent lung infections. These findings are suggestive of: Cystic fibrosis
Tuberculosis is spread from person to person by which pathway? Airborne exposure
During a tension pneumothorax, you would expect to see the mediastinum shift _____ the side with the pneumothorax. Away from
Penetrating chest wounds, rib fractures, and spontaneous rupture of blebs are all causes of: Pneumothorax
Pleural effusion can travel between left and right sides of the thorax. False
Which of the following patients would be a good candidate for a TIPSS procedure? Patient with liver disease
The bicuspid valve is also known as the: Left atrioventricular valve
The single most frequent cause of male deaths in the US is: Coronary artery disease
Tetralogy of Fallot includes which of the following defects? Pulmonary defects Ventricular septal defects Hypertrophy of right ventricle
The heart chamber located most anteriorly and comprising the anterior border of the cardiac shadow on a lateral chest radiograph is the: Right ventricle
The patient has a history of pulmonary emboli. She currently has marked swelling of her ankles and her chest x-ray shows enlargement of her right atrium and ventricle. These findings suggest: Right heart failure
Clinical signs of a myocardial infarction include: Shortness of breath Crushing chest pain Neck pain
The term ATHEROTHROMBIC BRAIN INFARCTION denotes: Infarction caused by thrombosis of a cerebral artery
Temporary neurologic dysfunction caused by decreased blood flow is also known as: TIA
An attached, stationary blood clot on the inner wall of a vessel is a/n: Thrombus
Which of the following types of tubes is readily visible on a chest radiograph and serves to maintain an adequate airway in a pulmonary-compromised patient? Endotracheal tube
An infant born after only six (6) months of gestation may likely suffer from: Hyaline membrane disease
An accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity is known as a(n): Empyema
In recent years, the number of tuberculosis cases is: Decreasing
The most common etiologic factor in bronchogenic carcinoma is: Cigarette smoking
Cystic fibrosis patients produce: Excessive and abnormally thick mucus that obstructs pathways
Patients at risk for pulmonary emboli are: -Immobile / sedentary -Post surgical -Post trauma to pelvis and legs - -All of the above are at risk for pulmonary emboli
Which of the following patients is most at-risk for HMD? Premature infants
Which type of vessels are used as the graft material for coronary artery bypass grafts? Veins
Risk factors associated with atherosclerosis include: Hypertension, cigarette smoking
How many posterior ribs should be visible on a good inspiration PA chest radiograph? Ten (10)
A decrease in tissue blood supply is termed: Ischemia
A patient with left side CHF can not effectively "clear" fluid from the lungs, resulting in: Pulmonary edema
The trachea is part of the: Lower respiratory tract
Although very different pathologically, both pneumothorax and pleural effusion may be treated with: Chest tubes
If an AEC device is inadvertently positioned behind an area of pleural consolidation or pneumonia, the resulting radiographic image of the normal sections of the lung will be: Too dark
Pulmonary fibrosis resulting from occupationally inhaled dusts is characteristic of: Pneumoconiosis
Where do you expect to see pleural effusion in the lung apices or the bases on an erect lateral chest radiograph? Bases
Contraction of the myocardium is termed: Systole
Clinical signs of a myocardial infarction include: -Shortness of breath -Crushing chest pain -Neck pain
Imaging procedures that may be used to demonstrate an abdominal aneurysm include: -Angiography -CT -Diagnostic sonography
Which valves are most commonly affected by rheumatic heart disease? Mitral
What prevents the backflow of blood in veins? One-way valves inside the vessels
Legionnaires' disease is a type of: Pneumonia
The trachea is part of the: Lower respiratory tract
An infant born after only six (6) months of gestation may likely suffer from: Hyaline membrane disease
Penetrating chest wounds, rib fractures, and spontaneous rupture of blebs are all causes of: Pneumothorax
Pleurisy could also be described as: Pleuritis
Chest fluroscopy is used to demonstrate: -Diaphragm mobility -Expansile pulsation of mediastinal masses -Calcification of pulmonary nodules
A condition in which the left ventricle cannot pump an amount of blood equal to the venous return of the right ventricle is: Left-sided congestive heart failure
Exocrine secretions plug the patient's bronchial system and the lab results indicate increased salt levels in the sweat. There is hyperinflation of the lungs and a history of recurrent lung infections. These findings are suggestive of: Cystic fibrosis
A thin-walled, air-containing cyst within the thorax is most likely a(n): Pneumatocele
People exposed to dust, such as agriculture and construction workers, in southwestern US and northern Mexico are particularly susceptible to: Coccidioidomycosis
An accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity is known as a(n): Empyema
Which lung is most frequently affected by aspiration? Right lung
Created by: radstudent105