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Cardio system chpt 7

Radiology pathology

QuestionAnswer
Which congenital heart disease Permits mixing of blood in the systemic & pulmonary circulation and is the most common? A) atrial septal defect B) Ventricular septal defect C) Left to right shunts C) left to right shunts
Left-to-Right the lungs become overloaded with blood? True or False True
Name 3 left to right congenital cardiac lesions. Which one is the most common? Atrial septal defect (most common), Ventricular septal defect, and Patent ductus arteriosus
2 Magnitude factors for left-to-right shunts are size of the defect and difference in pressure on both sides
Communication between ventricles are A) Atrial Septal defect or B) Ventricular septal ventricles? B) ventricular Septal defect
Atrial Septal defect free communication between two atria due to lack of closure of the foramen ovale after birth or improper closure during gestation.
Serves to shunt blood during intrauterine life-normally closes after birth? A) ventricular Septal B) Patent Ductus Arteriosus C) Atrial Septal defect B) patent ductus Arteriosus
Increased Pulmonary blood flow and overloading of right ventricle w/ enlargement of right vent, atrium and pulmonary outflow tract. A) Patent Ductus Arteriosus B) Ventricular Septal C) Atrial Septal defect C) Atrial septal defect
a vessel that extends from the bifurcation of the pulmonary artery to join aorta distal to left subclavian artery is known as Patent Ductus Arteriosus
Which Septal defect is associated with Increased pulmonary blood flow and increased pulmonary venous return w/ enlargement of left atrium and ventricle and NO overloading Ventricular Septal Defect
Increased pulmonary blood flow excess volume of blood is returned to left atrium and ventricle is associated with A) Patent Ductus Arteriosus B) Ventricular Septal C) Atrial Septal A) Patent Ductus Arteriosus
What is the difference between atrial septal defect aortic knob and patent ductus arterioles aortic knob? Patent has an prominent aortic knob while atrial septal has a small knob.
The difference between Patent ductus and Atrial when it comes to enlargement of the atrium and ventricle? PDA has enlargement of left atrium and Vent, while Atrial Septal is enlargement of right atrium and vent.
Most common cause of cyanotic congenital heart disease (blue baby) is known as Tetralogy of fallot
Name the four abnormalities of Tetralogy of fallot High ventricular Septal defect, Pulmonary stenosis, Overriding of aorta above ventricular defect, and right ventricular hypertrophy.
Tetralogy of fallot has an enlargement of the ___ventricle causes an ________& _______ displacement of the _____ of the heart Right ventricle, upward & lateral, apex
Narrowing or constriction of the aorta at distal arch with collateral circulation is....A) right CHF B) left CHF C) Coarctation of the Aorta C) Coarctation of the Aorta
Blood supply & pressure are lower in the upper extremities with Coarctation of the Aorta? True or False False, it is higher
Common Cause of hypertension in children is....A) Coarctation of the Aorta B) CHF C)Dissection of the Aorta A) Coarctation of the Aorta
Generally, normal blood pressure is in the arms while there is low bp in the legs concerning Coarctation of the Aorta? True or False True
appearance for Coarctation of the Aorta Rib notching due to erosion of the collateral vessels. Produces 2 knobes making it look like the letter E or the number 3
Inability of the heart to propel blood at a sufficient rate & volume to adequately supply the body's tissue is known as CHF (congestive heart failure)
3 Causes to CHF are obstruction that increase resistance to blood flow, cardiac abnormality, and hypertension
Difference between Left CHF and Right CHF Left: LEFT Ventricle is not pumping enough blood to equal venous blood in RIGHT Ventricle while Right: right side loses ability to pump efficiently
Compare the causes for both Left CHF and Right CHF Left: coronary Heart & Valvular disease &hypertension. Right: pulmonary valvular stenosis, emphysema, and pulmonary hypertension
Dilatation of right ventricle and right atrium. Also dilation of SVC, widening of the right superior mediastium & edema of lower exttremeites is A) Right CHF B)Pulmonary Edema C)Coarctation of the Aorta D) Atrial Septal defect A) Right CHF
Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pulmonary tissue Pulmonary edema
What is the most common cause of pulmonary edema? Elevation of the pulmonary venous pressure
In pulmonary edema the _____side heart failure, _______ venous obstruction or ________ blockage are causes of the Pulmonary venous pressure left side, pulmonary, or lymphatic blockage
2 main appearance of pulmonary edema are vascular markings are not sharp severe edema produces a butterfly pattern...... Kerley B lines and butterfly or bat wings(alveolar edema)
Kerly b lines Fluid in the interlobular septa produces thin horizontal lines of increased density at the axillary margins of the lung (interstitial pulmonary edema)
Butterfly or bat wings (Alveolar edema) Diffuse bilaterally symmetric fan shaped infiltration that is most prominent in the central portion of lungs
Long-standing high blood pressure that causes narrowing of the systemic blood vessels and an increase resistance to blood flow A) CHF B) Mitral Stenosis C) Dissection of the Aorta D) Hypertensive heart disease Hypertensive heart disease
Hypertensive heart disease has the ______ ventricle working harder and initially causes____________ left, hypertrophy
Hypertensive Heart Disease has an enlarged _________ ventricle with a __________ displacement of the apex aortic ___________ left, downward, tortuosity
Localized dilatation of an artery & Weakness in the wall is known as Aneurysm
2 complications of an aneurysm increase size and rupture leading to a massive hemorrhage
2 types of aneurysm Saccular - involves only one side and Fusiform - bulging of entire circumference of vessel
4 causes for an aneurysm trauma, congenital defect, infection and atherosclerosis
Disruption of the intima permits blood to enter the wall of the aorta and its layers is....A) Coarctation of the Aorta B)CHF C)Dissection of the Aorta D) Hypertensive heart disease Dissection of the aorta
Dissection is divided into a true and false lumen? true or false true
True lumen may develop an aneurysm? true or false False....It's a false lumen
Appearance of dissection of the aorta Progressive widening of the aortic shadow (irregular or wavy outer border)
Atreial hypertension, trauma, and attributable to a congenital defect associated with dissection of the aorta? true or false True
Fatty deposits called plaque develop in the intima and produce progressive narrowing and possible occlusion is known as Atherosclerosis
atherosclerosis is a form of arteriosclerosis? yes...arteriosclerosis occurs when arteries become marked by thickening hardening and loss of elasticity i the arterial wall.
Atherosclerosis is a major cause of vascular disease of the extremities? true or false True
myocardial infraction or stroke is NOT associated with Atherosclerosis? true or false False
Thrombosis VS Embolism Thrombosis is a clot that forms where blood flow is slow. Embolism is a part or all of a clot that detaches from the vessel wall and enters the bloodstream.
Stenosis of the mitral valve is known as Mitral insufficiency or mitral stenosis? Mitral stenosis
Mitral stenosis PA CXR and a Lateral & RAO would demonstrate PA: enlargement of left atrium Lat & RAO: post displacement of barium filled esophagus
Mitral insufficiency results from ______ _________ that causes the valve cusps to retract preventing the cusps from meeting when it tries to close and blood leaks through valve . fibrous scarring
Mitral insufficiency has a larger right atrium than seen in mitral stenosis and has dilatation & hypertrophy of right ventricle (increase in volume of blood). True or false false. Left atrium and left ventricle
Accumulation of the fluid within the pericardial space surrounding the heart is A) pulmonary edema or B) pericardial effusion? pericardial effusion
how many ml of fluid to detect pericardial effusion? at least 200ml
Bateria, viruses, or neoplastic are involved with pericardial effusion? True or false True
CXR a pericardial effusion will demonstrate enlargement of the cardiac silhouette
An adrenal tumor is an......A) lymphoma B) neuroblastoma C) Glioma D) Pituitary Adenoma neuroblastoma
neoplasms of the lymph nodes is....A)lymphoma B) Glioma C) neuroblastoma D)Meningioma Lymphoma
Spleen and the parenchymal organ or associated with A) Craniopharyngioma B) Meningioma C) Lymphoma D) neuroblastoma C) Lymphoma
Lymphoma is divided into 2 types Hodgkins- lymph nodes and non Hodgkin's- parenchyma organs
which one is not an parenchymal organ.....A) G.I tract B)Lung C)skin D) heart D)heart
lymphoma on a CXR demos asymmetric, bilaterally enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes
lymphoma for the GI and skeletal will appear irregular and ulcerated polypoid mass and thickening of rural folds bones erosion of thoracolumbar spine
2nd most common highly malignancy of the adrenal tumor in children A) lymphoma B)Neuroblastoma C) glioma D) None Neuroblastoma
what procedure can demonstrate calcification of tumor and inferior and lateral kidney displacement for a neuroblastoma? IVU
Results in the classic Coeur en Sabot appearance, which the heart resembles the curved toe portion of a wooden shoe Tetralogy of fallout
Encephalitis is caused by herpes simplex and is often fatal. True or False True
Created by: Lissy6