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Nervous System Chpt8

Radiology pathology

The pathologic condition that refers to dilation of the ventricular system and is usually associated w/ increased intracranial pressure is Hydrocephalus
What pathology requires shunt series? hydrocephalus
Which ventricles are affected with hydrocephalus lateral and third ventricles
which images is required for hydrocephalus? What image modality is preferred? Ap skull, Ap Chest, Ap kub and Lat skull.( CT ) MRI is used too
Meningitis is an ____ inflammation of ___ _____& _______ Acute, pia mater & arachnoid
Meningitis is a result from what three types of infections? How can it spread? Middle ear, upper respiratory infection, frontal sinus. Blood stream
What type of procedure is used to determine the cause of meningitis? What does it evaluate? Spinal tap (lumbar puncture). Evaluates CSF
What is the most common type of meningitis? Bacteria (pyogenic)
A viral infection of the brian and meninges is called encephalitis
Many of the viruses are spread by mosquitos
30% of encephalitis occur in ______. The most common location is __________ ____ Children. Temporal Lobe
The preferred image modality for encephalitis is___. reveals Abnormalities _-_ days ___. MRI, 3-5 days after
Encapsulated accumulation of pus within cranium is associated to what pathology? Osteomyelitis or brain abscess Brain Abscess
Brain abscess results from what 3 chronic infections and 2 systemic infections? 1. Middle ear, 2. sinus, 3.mastoids 1.pneumonia & 2. osteomyelitis
Does gas-forming organism can produce air-fluid level within Brain abscess? True or False True, streptococci
What 3 underlying conditions can Plain skull images indicate for Brian abscess? sinusitis, mastoiditis, or osteomyelitis
What image modality is considered superior for demonstrating brain abscess? MRI
Osteomyelitis of the skull is caused by a direct extension of an infection of the sinuses, mastoid air cells, or scalp.
Osteomyelitis of the skull radiologic changes develop within _ to _ ____ after or before onset of clinical symptoms? 1 to 2 wks after
Appearance of Osteomyelitis of the skull are multiple, small poorly defined areas of lucency.
What are the 5 benign tumors in the nervous system that we discussed? Meningioma, Acoustic Neuroma, Pituitary Adenoma, Craniopharyngioma and pineal tumors
What are the three malignant tumors discussed? Glioma, Medulloblastoma, and Mets carcinoma
What is the most common Malignant brain tumor? Glioma
Glioma consist of _____ cells that still have the ability to_____. glial cells, multiply
Glioma can spread by direct extension and can cross from one cerebral hemisphere to the other through connecting white matter tracts? True or False True
What is the peak occurrence age for glioma? Middle age and older
What are two types of Glioma? Give at least one description for each. 1. glioblastoma - highly malignant lesions 2. Astrocytomas -(70% of all gliomas) Slow growing tumors. Infiltrative character with large cavities.
Which is the least frequent type of glioma...Glioblastoma, Astrocytomas or medulloblastoma? Medulloblastoma
Medulloblastoma is slow or rapid growing tumor? rapid
Medulloblastoma spreads throughout subarachnoid space with mets deposits.
What gender is Medulloblastoma more common in? What pathology can it lead to? Males, hydrocephalus- displacement of the 4th ventricle
benign tumor arising from arachnoid lining and attaches to the dura and accounts for 25% of all spinal tumors with possible calcification w/in tumor is A) Meningioma B)Glioma C)Pituitary D) Craniopharyngioma Meningioma
Appearance of meningioma is irregular, not well defined lesions. True or False False: Round, well defined lesions
meningioma can exert pressure on brain eventually leading to death. True or Flase True
Slow growing benign tumor usually originates in the internal auditory canal is known as Acoustic Neuroma
Acoustic neuroma destroys the ________ __________ ______; associated with __________ and _______. internal auditory metas. deafness and tinnitus
Acoustic can lead to hydrocephalus? True or False True
What image modality is preferred for Acoustic Neuroma? MRI
Pituitary Adenoma grows with in ____ _______ arising from _________ lobe of the gland. sella turcica, anterior
Pituitary adenoma ______ the sella turcica and exerts pressure on the ______ _______ which leads to _______ problems. erodes, optic chiasm, vision
Hormone secreting pituitary tumors can cause ________ in children and ________ in adults. What image modality is preferred? Gigantism in children acromegaly in adults. MRI
Benign tumor containing cystic & solid components originating from above the sella turcica, depress the optic chasm and extends up into the 3rd ventricle leading to hydrocephalus? Pituitary Adenoma or Craniophryngioma? Craniopharyngioma
Craniopharyngioma usually occurs at what age? before the age of 20
What are the most common pineal tumors Germinoma & teratoma
What age and gender group are more predominate to pineal tumors males less than 25yrs old
Large pineal tumors can lead to hydrocephalus? T or F Can they consist of teeth ? True, yes
Metastatic Carcinoma Most common neoplasm that metastasize to the brain arises from the lungs and breast.
metastatic carcinoma can be either _____ or _______ lesions. It reaches the brain through the _______ ______. single or multiple. blood stream
Name four skull fx Linear, Diastatic, depressed, and Basilar skull FX
A skull FX that appears Sharp lucent lines that are irregular or jagged; occasionally branches are....A) depressed Fx, B) Diastatic FX C) Linear FX Linear FX
what are the two locations of linear FX Vasular groove: vessel laceration and Sinus or mastoid air cells:w/in the air ventricle
A linear FX intersecting a suture and runs along suture resulting in sutural separation is....A) Basilar FX B) Linear FX C) Diastatic FX Diastatic FX
What skull FX Often stellate (star shape) with multi FX lines radiating outward from the central point A) Basiliar B) Depressed C) Diastatic D )linear Depressed FX
What view is required to determine amount of depression on a depression FX? Tangential view
A Skull FX that is difficult to evaluate due to complexity of anatomy is Basilar FX
To see air-fluid in the sphenoid sinus you must position the patient for a erect or x-table lateral projection of the skull
What hematoma reflects venous bleeding usually from the rupture veins between the dura and meninges (caused by mild injury, fall) A) Epidural hematoma B)Subdural hematoma C)Subarachnoid hemorrhage D) Intracerebral Hemorrhage Subdural hematoma
What type of hematoma is caused by acute arterial bleeding usually due to a tear in the medial meningeal artery leading to bleeding between the dura mater and bone? A)Intracerebral hematoma B) Epidural Hematoma C) Subarachnoid hemorrhage epidural hematoma
What hematoma is associated with serve trauma? Subdural or epidural hematoma? epidural hematoma
A large hemorrhage with a midline shift and hemorrhage into brain parenchyma that develops immediately after head injury is known as intracerebral hemorrhage
What hematoma/hemorrhage is associated with injury to surface veins or cortical arteries bleeding into ventricles? Subarachnoid hemorrhage or intracerebral hematoma? Subarachnoid hemorrhage
Cerebral contusion an injury to the brain tissue caused by movement of the brain within the calvaria after blunt trauma to the skull
Coup vs contercoup Coup: same side countercoup lesion: opposite side of initial impact. ( injury results in the back if impacted in the front of the head)
Most common site for cerebral contusion Frontal and anterior lobe
Name 5 facial FX Nasal bone, blowout, zygomatic, tripod, and mandibular
What is the most common facial FX Nasal
Nasal bone FX are mostly A)oblique B) Transverse C) linear transverse FX
Blowout FX Caused by a direct blow to the front of the orbit.
Blowout FX occurs in the orbital floor just above the maxillary sinus
What view best demonstrate presence of air within orbit that indicates communication with paranasal sinus(ethmoid) for the blowout FX waters
A blow to the side of the face is which Facial Fx? A)blowout FX B)zygomatic arch FX C)linear FX D)basiliar FX zygomatic arch FX
Zygomatic arch FX is best demostrated in what view? underexpose SMV (jug handle view)
Facial fx of the zygomatic arch and the orbital floor combined with separation of the zygomaticofrontal suture is known as tripod fx
The most common site of the Manibular FX is the? The most common fx of the mandible are angle of the mandible bilateral fx
The acronym for TIA stands for Transient Ischemic Attack
A) Stroke syndrome or B) TIA is a sudden and dramatic development of neurological deficit depending on which arteries are involved? Stroke syndrome
Acute brain infraction is also known as Stroke syndrome
can you use contrast to indicate acute brain infraction? NO
Stroke syndrome (acute brain infraction) involves circulation of the EXTERNAL carotid arteries and is seen with hemiparies and dysarthria? T or F False: INTERNAL
Temporary episode of neurologic dysfunction which is interrupted of circulation caused by arteriosclerotic plaque? A) Stroke syndrome B) TIA C)Epidural Hematoma TIA
TIA often precedes a stroke and is known as a warning sign? T or False True
What are the 3 symptoms of TIA faintness, localized paralysis, ans aphasia
80% of patients who have TIA will later suffer from a stroke. T or F True
Sinusitis Viral infection of the upper respiratory tract that leads to obstruction of drainage of the paranasal sinuses.
what position and direction of the beam is necessary to demonstrate air fluid levels Patient must be upright and a horizontal beam
what 4 types of tumors pathology can lead to hydrocephalus Craniopharyngioma, Acoustic Neuroma, medulloblastoma , and Pineal tumors (CAMP)
Created by: Lissy6