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Culinary Arts Terms1

Culinary TermDefinition
Brasier A pan designed for braising; usually round with two handles and a tight fitting lid.
Brigade A system of staffing a kitchen so that each worker is assigned a specific set of tasks; these tasks are often related to cooking method, equipment or the types of foods being produced.
Buerre Rouge French for "Red Butter," a sauce made with an emulsification of shallots, red wine, and butter.
Bisque A soup usually made from shellfish, the classical version is thickened with rice.
Buerre Noisette French for "brown butter," Whole butter is heated until it turns a light brown, giving off a nutty flavor.
Buerre Noir French for "black butter,' whole butter is heated until it is dark brown, "not black," and is sometimes flavored with vinegar or lemon juice.
Anadromous A fish that migrates from a salt water habitat to spawn in fresh water, such as salmon
À la French for "in the manner or style of;" used in relation to a food, it designates a style of preparation or presentation.
Al dente Italian for "to the tooth"; used to describe cooked vegetables or pasta that are prepared firm to the bite, not soft or mushy.
Au Gratin Foods with a browned or crusted top; often made by browning a food with a bread crumb, cheese and/or sauce topping under a broiler or salamander.
Aging (1) The period during which freshly killed meat is allowed to rest so that the effects of rigor mortis dissipate (2) the period during which freshly milled flour is allowed to rest so that it will whiten and produce less sticky doughs; the aging of flours
Acidulation the browing of cut fruit that is caused by the reaction of an enzyme (polyphenoloxidase) with the phenolic compounds present in these fruits; this browning is often mistakenly attributed to exposure to oxygen.
Ballotine (bahl-lo-teen) similar to a galantine; usually made by stuffing a deboned poultry leg with force meat; it is then poached or braised and normally served hot.
As Purchased (A.P.) The condition or cost of an item as it is purchased or received from the supplier.
Buerre Blanc(burr BLAHNK) French for "white butter,"; an emulsified butter sauce made from shallots, white wine, and butter.
Béchamel (bay-shah-MELL) a leading sauce made by thickening milk with a white roux and adding seasonings.
Buerre Manié A combination of equal amounts by weight of flour and soft, whole butter; it is whisked into in a simmering sauce at the end of the cooking process for quick thickening and added sheen and flavor.
Fumet A stock made from fish bones or shellfish shells and vegetables simmered in a liquid with additional flovorings added. Not to be confused with fish stock.
Court bouillon Water simmered with vegetables, seasoniongs, and an acidic product such as vinegar or wine; used for simmering or poaching fish, shellfish or vegetables.
Consommé a rich stock or broth that has been clarified with clearmeat to remove impurities.
Clearmeat a mixture consisting of egg white, ground meat, and acidic product, mire poix and other ingredients that is used to clarify stock to make consomme
Chinois A conical strainer made of fine mesh, used for straining and pureeing foods.
Rondeau a shallow, wide, straight-sided pot with two loop handles.
Cuisson (Kwee-sohn) the liquid used for shallow poaching. It is often reduced and used for a light sauce with the item that was poached in.
Mirepoix (meer-pwa) a mixture od coarsley chopped onions, carrots, and celery used to flavor stocks, stews and other foods; generally a mixture of 50% onions, 25% carrots, and 25% celery.
Matignon a standard mirepoix plus diced smoked bacon or diced smoked ham and, depending on the dish, mushrooms and herbs; sometimes called edible mirepoix, it is usually cut more uniformly than the standard mirepoix as it is to be served with the dish.
Capsaicin (Kap-SAY-ee-zin) an alkaloid found in a chile pepper's placental ribs and seeds that provides the pepper's heat.
Crudite French for a a vegetable tray with dip. Relish tray.
Blanquette a white stew made of white sauce and meat or poultry that is simmered without first browning.
en croûte refers to meat or stuffing that is wrapped in dough and baked. It means in crust.
Maillard the browning reaction of cooked proteins. It makes steak taste like steak. Discovered by Loius Maillard of France.
Foie Gras liver of specially fattened geese.
Allumet/Julienne a knife cut that is 1/8" x 1/8" x 2 1/2"
Collagen a protein found in nearly all connective tissue; it dissolves when cooked with moisture.
Au Sec to reduce a liquid to almost dry.
Demi Sec To reduce a liquid by half. It means half dry.
Wait a sec what you say to a server to get them out of your window for a while. Just kidding!!
Bouquet Garni fresh herbs and vegetables tied into a bundle with twine and used to flavor stocks, sauces, soups, and stews.
Chinois (Sheen-wah) a conical strainer made of fine mesh, used for straining and puréeing foods.
China Cap a cone-shaped strainer made of perforated metal.
Sauteuse a slope sided saute pan.
Sautoir a straight sided saute pan. Often called a skillet in America.
Oblique also known as the rolled cut. usually round vegetables that have two angled side cuts that form an oblique triangle if looked at from the side.
Coulis a sauce made with a purée of vegetables and/ or fruit; may be served hot or cold.
Mandolin a cutting utensil that chefs use to make various cuts easier. It has adjustable blades that are switched to do the various cuts that it can perform.
Demi Glace Literally means half glaze but is really half sauce. A that is made by adding one half Espanole sauce to one half brown stock and then reducing the mixture by half.
Crème the French word for cream. Whipped creme.
Canape Tiny opened faced sandwich, served ans a hors d' ouvre.
Crécy garnished with or containing carrots.
Crème Brûlée A rich custard with a caramelized browned sugar crust.
Confit Meat or poultry cooked and preserved in its own fat: fruits or vegetables cooked and preserved in brandy or liquor syrup.
Matelote a French fish chowder using eel, mushrooms, and wine.
Foie Gras is a food product made of the liver of a duck or goose that has been specially fattened. This fattening is typically achieved through gavage (force-feeding) corn, according to French law
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