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What is a social network? System of interconnected social actors (individuals, groups, organizations)
What is the proximity effect? We are close to those who are physically close to us
What are some ways of getting network data? Interviews, surveys, records, observation
What are direct. vs. indirect ties? Personally know someone vs. knowing someone who knows someone.
What is social capital? Resource in network of relationships that create value, get things done, and accomplish goals
What are some benefits of having social capital? Access, timing, referrals
What does social power depend on? Network centrality and usefulness
What are structural holes? Same as a boundary spanner or information broker, bridging holes in a network = more power
What are strong vs. weak ties? Strong is knowing someone well, being related, interacting frequently, weak is the opposite of these
What is a benefit of weak ties? Diverse information
What are central connectors? Not formal leader of group, but links the most people in a network. They know who to seek information from but may seem less productive and a bottleneck
What are boundary spanners or information brokers? Positioned between networks, connecting people within and across networks. Enables diverse information but costly and their departure is also costly
What are peripheral specialists? Individuals with a deep knowledge in a specific domain. They have expertise, but may not be drawn out if no one knows about them, being too involved in the network may also frustrate them.
What are the benefits of having good social networks for individuals? Higher paying jobs, faster promotions, more satisfying jobs
What are the benefits of having good social networks for organizations? Better relationships with customers, suppliers, etc.
What are diversity affinity groups? Groups of employees within an organization who share a common identity
How do diversity affinity groups develop and what is their significance? An individual's identity is in part defined by his/her chosen profession, but also have aspects outside the firm. In these groups, the various identities are combined to promote change within the firm so they do not clash
What is cooptation? Firms encouraging the formation of diversity affinity groups for their own purposes and blunts their ability to leverage real change.
What is the point made by the LGBT example in the reading for diversity affinity groups? Work is a social place where the government tries to use as a mechanism for social change
Discuss Gladwell's strong vs. weak ties and examples of each: High risk activism relies on strong ties (deep personal connections, disrupting status quo). Social media relies on weak ties (great for obtaining ideas and information, makes status quo more efficient).
What is the Greensboro (Gladwell) story and what is its significance? Strong ties led 4 black students to sit in at a lunch counter that spread the civil rights movement.
What are tempered radicals? Individuals who work inside the firm within its policies and practices, they are more subtle than activists and take small continuous steps.
What determines the success of a tempered radical? Gaining support from others in organization, and appropriate framing of issues consistent with the culture of the firm
What is cultural framing? Culture of a firm presents a blueprint for how to present an issue so that it is received well by members and acted upon
What is motivation? Willingness to exert persistent effort toward [organizational] goals
What is performance dependent on? Ability + motivation + luck ...
What are traditional vs. modern reinforcements and awards? Traditional is like salary and benefits while modern is tied to goals and high incentive
What are some problems with extrinsic motivation? Behavior only exists when rewards exist, diminishing returns, "line of sight" problem, decreases intrinsic motivation
Factors favoring high incentive pay: Employee's output can be measured at low cost and employee's effort is directly correlated to success
When are group incentives effective? Determining individual contribution is costly and cooperation is favored
What is Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory? Assumes motivation is driven by human needs, widely known theory but doesn't always hold up and emphasis individualism
What is McClelland's three needs theory? Achievement, Power, Affiliation - Assumes people are motivated by RELATIONAL needs, allows people to differ in strength of needs
What is the difference between Maslow and McClelland? Maslow: Individualistic, needs are ordered, shared by all humans McClelland: Social, needs not sequential, learned
What is goal setting theory? Process --> Content --> Feedback Assumes that properties of the task itself drive motivation, applicable in business settings, but goals can conflict
What is equity theory? Assumes people are motivated by the relative value of external rewards, recognizes context and perception of rewards, but each individual can have her own referent and its harder for managers to deal with
What is expectancy theory? Effort --> Performance --> Rewards People make calculations of ability and estimate potential outcomes, focuses on perceptions but unclear how people make these calculations
What is the folly of rewarding for A while hoping for B? Rewards often do not incent behaviors we actually desire and can create goal conflict
What causes the folly of rewarding for A while hoping for B? Fascination with "objective" criterion and overemphasis on highly visible behaviors
Hausser Food Case Misaligned rewards and goals, having great yearly output and good ideas actually hurt you, two different worlds of sales and corporate
What is job design? The way work is structured and executed - this is motivate people intrinsically
What is the job characteristics model? core job dimensions --> critical psychological states --> personal and work outcome
Tell me about skylab: 3 Nasa missions in the 1970s, 3rd crew went on strike
What is skill variety vs. task identity vs. task significance? skill variety is the different activities it takes to do a job, task identity is how an employee sees his work as his own, and task significance is the result of an employees work impacted on other factors
What is culture? A system of shared values and norms that define appropriate attitudes and behaviors for organizational members
How is culture a control system? Since it's difficult to monitor behavior and outcomes, this is a way to ensure individuals act in ways the organization wants
What are norms? Socially created expectations about what is and is not appropriate. Leads to culture.
How do norms vary? Vary in intensity (amount of approval/disapproval of a behavior) and consensus (extend to which norm is shared). "strong" culture = high intensity and high consensus.
What are mechanisms for developing culture? Participation, management as symbolic action, information from others, comprehensive rewards
What are Schein's levels of culture? basic underlying assumptions --> values and espoused values --> artifacts and practices
Why study low wage work? economically and politically consequential, prominent and growing feature of US economy, not just young people work in these jobs
What are some key qualities of low wage jobs? low pay, few benefits, involuntary part time hours, lack of set schedule,
What factors drive the wage gap? educational, occupational and industry distribution disparities, experience
What are the differences b/w women and men in negotiations? women are not focused on self in negotiations and also value relationships
What is discrimination? Treating individuals differently based on race, sex, or other such qualities. White names get more callbacks.
Who ends up with what kinds of jobs? women and minorities have less networks in high places and are also filed into lesser jobs by 3rd party intermediaries
What are some legal actions toward discrimination? civil rights act 1964 and affirmative action
How did US income inequality become such a big problem? changes in corporate organization from old deal to new deal, driven by finance and links to changes in HR
What are some trends in employment? from manufacturing to retail/services due to technology, post industrialism, shift from company pensions to 401ks and mutual funds, "nikization", companies losing identity
Created by: sli353
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