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Inflamation and the Immune System- Pharmacology

Innate Immune System 1st line of defense (physical, biochemical, cellular compponets, release of histamine, phagocytosis of bacteria
adaptive immune system specific response, antibodies, cytotoxic t cells
lymphoid stem cell gives rise to B and T cells
myeloid stem cell gives rise to neutrophils, eosinophils, etc
neutrophil phagocytic cells which destroy bacteria
eosinophil defense against parasitic infections
basophil circulating cells similar to mast cells, bind IgE antibody and release histamine (allergic response)
mast cell tissue-resident cells similar to basophils, bind IgE antibody and release histamine (allergic response)
antigen presenting cells process protiens of invading agent and display on cell surface so that antibodies and cytotoxic t cells can recognize and destroy
macrophages tissue resident process and present antigenic fragments to T cells
dendritic cells found in lymphoid tissue, initiate adaptive response
Major histocompatibility complex (MCH) way for cells to present protien fragments
MHC class 1 display cytosolic protiens
MCH class 2 display protein fragments from endocytic vesicles
Humoral immunity part of adaptive immunity, B-cells make antibodies and antibodies go to extracellular infectious agents (bacteria)
B cells antigen presenting cells that synthesize and secrete antibodies
cellular immunity part of adaptive immunity, involves t cells
perforins pore-forming proteins- a protein that T cells use to destroy infected cells
granzymes protease which induces apoptosis in viral infected cells
fasligand transmembrane protien from tumor necrosis factor family, binding induces apoptosis
tolerance carefully regulated process to make sure cells of the immune system do not recognize self
costimulation multiple signals necessary to initiate an immune response, provides a way the immune system can limit response
histamines synthesized, stored and released from mast cells and basophils, dilate arterioles and postcapillary venules, constrict viens, contract endothelial cells
eicosanoids prostaglandins and leukotrienes, some pro-inflammatory while others limit the reaction
cytokines protiens that act to enhance the immune system
interleukins cytokine- important for acute inflammation (IL-1, TNF)
chemkines cytokine- help recruit cells to injured area
chemotaxis recruitment of immune system cells
phagocytosis leukocytes are activated then ingest forgiwn substance coated with opsonins- binding enhancers
resolution healing and scar formation through angiogenesis and granulation tissue
Type 1 immune response immediate hypersensitivity (sec-min), mediated by IgEm anaphylaxis, asthma, hay fever, urticaria (hives)
Type 2 immune response (hr-days) formation of antigen antibody complex, mediated by IgG or Ig immunoglobins
Type 3 immune response (hr-days)presence of eleevated levels of antigen-antibody complexes deposited on basement membrane in tissues and vessels, IgG, IgM, recruit neutrophils, skin rases, glomerulonephritis, arthritis, lupus
Type 4 immune response delayed 2-3 days after exposure, cell mediated instead of antibody mediated, T cells, contact dermatitis, diabetes
Created by: Kachmiel