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AS population change

Aids Aquired immunodeficiency syndrome - a group of infections, such as pneumonia, TB and skin cancers, that strike people with immune systems damaged by HIV.
Barriers Factors restricting migration (eg Restricting movements (such as in North Korea), Border Patrols, Walls, Desert (Mexico - USA), civil strife)
Biosphere Concerned with the natural environment such as animal and plant life
Brownfield sites Sites which have been built on before but have become available for new building due to demolition/redundancy of new buildings.
Child mortality rate number of deaths of children under 5 in a year/1000 (can be due to weaning in LEDCs)
Club of Rome A group of countries who believe that as population rises, natural resources (particularly oil) will decrease, leading to a decrease in population (published in 'Limits to Growth'. Known as 'Malthus with a computer.'
Conurbation One large, more or less continuous area created as a city grows and spreads to 'absorb' other cities, towns and villages.
Counter urbanisation Occurred in late 20th century when suburbs became bigger and less select, causing upper middle class to move to nearby villages due to perceived better quality of life and safer environment for children
Crude birth rate number of live births per 1000 population (measured at midpoint of year) pa
Crude death rate number of deaths per 1000 population, pa
Demographic transition model Graph showing changes in a country's birth rates, death rates and total population at different stages of development. Is based on observation of Western European countries, and can be used as a predictive/comparative tool.
Dependency ratio Proportion of people not in work (children under 16, adults 65+) /economically active
Disturbed landscapes Traffic increases due to the urban economy, planning permission for out of town services and bypasses becomes easily obtainable, new houses fill in green spaces between towns and road schemes, landscape quality decreases
Dormitory village A high percentage of the population work in a nearby city and commute every day - so only spend time in the village at evenings and weekends
Economists Are concerned with the socio economic sphere, and only look into the short term future (3/5/20 years) as the economy is changeable.
Emigration Migration out of a place
Environmentalists Are concerned with the biosphere, and look into the long term future (50/100+ years), as the environment changes over a long period of time, and changes that we make take a long time to have effect (like a tanker coming into port).
Ester Boserup Believed that population growth stimulates changes in agricultural techniques meaning more food can be produced. Had an optimistic approach to worries over food supply - 'Necessity is the mother of invention.'
Facilitating factors Factors that allow migration, (eg improvements in transport/communication, better education (literacy), 'footloose population' (eg retired), limited passport/visa control (EU), governments (funding, asylum, exile)
Fecundity Ability to have children
Female infanticide When female infants are deliberately killed/abandoned, leading to death, by parents, often due to a desire to have a son to carry on the family name and be an economic asset. Particularly common in China, as a result of the OCP
Fertility rate Average number of children expected to be born to a woman over her lifetime - UK average is 1.66
Foeticide When a foetus is aborted, often due to being female, as many families desire a son as they are more of an economic asset.
Gentrification An unplanned change where individual families buy old properties and improve them and add to their value-eg rewiring, replacing bathrooms. More and more people do this, an area attracts a richer population and new services, meaning the area moves upmarket
Green belt An area defined by an Act of Parliament which surrounds a conurbation where it is difficult to obtain planning permission to stop urban sprawl
HIV human immunodeficiency virus, which attacks the immune system of those who are infected. Is transmitted through body fluids (eg during unprotected sex, blood transfusions, sharing needles, mother and baby during childbirth)
Immigration Migration into a place
Infant mortality rate number of deaths of infants (before first birthday) in a year/1000 live births
Infilling The use of open spaces within a conurbation to build new housing or services, often close to where a green belt restricts outward growth
Julian Simon Beilieves that population expansion is positive, as people are living longer (LE in France 300 years ago would be around 30), and as we use up resources they become more readily available and cost less for the same amount.
Life expectancy number of years that a person is expected to live, usually expressed at birth. Often broken down by gender, as women tend to live longer (better IS, higher pain threshhold, healthier lifestyle, store excess fat in safer places)
Migration Physical movemnt of people from one area to another - this can be from one region to other within a country, or country to country
Neglected landscapes Some landscapes are left idle due to changing economies - farm buildings are left derelict, workers are laid off due to mechanisation, and outside contractors work a few days a year so landscape maintenance (eg hedgerow trimming) is minimal
Net migration Total number of immigrants - emigrants for a given period of time
Paul Ehrlich Believes that we are too concerned with the socio economic sphere and not the biosphere. We waste our resources, meaning that the socio economic sphere is exploiting the biosphere.
Population pyramid Displays the age and sex structure of a country/given area
Population structure the breakdown of a country's population into groups defined by age and sex
Positive Check Malnutrition, starvation and civil strife over resources that Malthus believed would occur when population rose higher than food production - bringing death rate up
Preventive Check Later marriage, sexual abstinence and celibacy that Thomas Malthus wanted to introduce to bring birth rate down (especially among poorer people) so population would not overtake food production. Didn’t promote abortion/contraception as he was a priest.
Pull factors Things at the destination encouraging migration (quality of life, lower crime rate, high salary/jobs, better education opps, pleasant location, night/social life, family/friends, government, safety from disasters, students, recreational interests)
Push factors Things at the origin encouraging migration (eg rural poverty, low salaries, no jobs, limited education, persecution, government, natural disaster, famine)
Rate of natural increase If birth rate is greater than death rate, natural increase will occur
Replacement level number of children needed per couple to maintain a population size. Is 2.1 worldwide to account for deaths early in life.
Resources Parts of the environment that can be used by, and are of value to people (eg food, water, shelter, fuel, raw materials for industry)
Reurbanisation Migration from countryside to city - some wealthier people moved from rural areas back to the city centre - they converted old warehouses and quayside properties to form redevelopments
Ribbon developments Developments which grow outwards from a central area along main transport routes
Rural urban fringe A broad area surrounding major cities which relies on those cities for work and many services. The transition between ryral and urban land use
Simplified landscapes Due to factory farms owned by large agri-businesses - fields become larger, hedges, habitats and gateways are removed to allow operation of large machinery
Social welfare The well being of communities - refers to access that groups of people/individuals have to job opportunities, housing, healthcare, education, an unpolluted environment, a safe environment and freedom to practice one's culture and religion etc.
Socio economic sphere Concerned with human activity such as money and order of society
Stage 1 of the DTM (parts of Ethiopia/Bangladesh) Birth rate and death rate 35/1000, small population growth. BR: no family planning, children die in infancy, children work on land/support old age parents. DR: disease, famine, malnutrition, poor sanitation/healthcare
Stage 2 of the DTM (Peru, Sri Lanka, Kenya) Birth rates remain high, death rate falls (20/1000) due to: improved medicine, sanitation, food production, transport for food/doctors, decrease in infant/child mortality
Stage 3 of the DTM (China, Cuba, Australia) Rapid BR fall (16/1000), slight DR fall, P increases slowly. BR: family planning, lower IM (don’t need to have as many children), imdustrialisation, more desire for material possessions, not a large family, emancipation of women.
Stage 4 of the DTM (Canada, Japan, US, UK) Birth rates (12-16/1000) and Death rates (10-12/1000) remain low, and fluctuate to give a steady population.
Stage 5 of the DTM (Hungary 1995+) Countries of central/eastern Europe where BR has fallen below replacement level have reached this stage, and have an aging population. Countries where HIV/Aids cause rise in DR can be seen to be in this stage (return to stage one?)
Standardised (refined) birth rate for example, number of live births per 1000 females aged 15-45 pa
Standardised (refined) death rate takes into account age profile of population
Studentification Properties are subdivided and let to students - leading to more noise, less carefully tended gardens, several old cars parked on the street. There is pressure on remaining families to move out, leaving more properties for students. The area deteriorates
Suburbanisation Growth of suburbs, aided by the growth of public transport systems
Suburbs Established in early 20th century as new arrivals settled in the inner city - nearby villages or ribbon developments. Residents would be middle class and aspire to better conditions (eg a bigger house/garden)
Terraced accomodation Usually located in the inner city - built cheaply in industrial Britain by factory bosses (so shared walls etc) - known as '2 up 2 down'
Thomas Malthus Priest who believed that due a a lack of moral restraint the population was expanding at a geometric rate, while food supply was growing at an arithmetic rate)
Urban deprivation Characteristics include low average income, poor health and low life expectancy, high crime rates, low educational acheivement
Urban regeneration Development in an urban area which has previously been suffering from deprivation (eg London Docklands)
Urbanisation A higher percentage of a country's population living in urban areas
Valued landscapes Traditional cottages and villages become more valued due to urban areas, period buildings are listed, conservation areas are established, planning permission is more difficult to obtain, country parks are created to conserve the landscape
Created by: Rayrayy



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