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PSY 201: Chapter 9

Language and Thought

Language A system for communicating with others using signals that are combined according to rules of grammar and convey meaning
Grammar A set of rules that specify how the units of language can be combined to produce meaningful messages
Phoneme The smallest unit of sound that is recognizable as speech rather than as random noise
Phonological rules A set of rules that indicate how phonemes can be combined to produce speech sounds
Morphemes The smallest meaningful units of language
Morphological rules A set of rules that indicate how morphemes can be combined to form words
Syntactical rules A set of rules that indicate how words can be combined to form phrases and sentences
Deep structure The meaning of a sentence
Surface structure How a sentence is worded
Fast mapping The fact that children can map a word onto an underlying concept after only a single exposure
Telegraphic speech Speech that is devoid of function morphemes and consists mostly of content words
Nativist theory The view that language development is best explained as an innate, biological capacity
Language acquisition device (LAD) A collection of processes that facilitate language learning
Genetic dysphasia A syndrome characterized by an inability to learn the grammatical structure of language despite having otherwise normal intelligence
Aphasia Difficulty in producing or comprehending language
Linguistic relativity hypothesis The proposal that language shapes the nature of thought
Concept A mental representation that groups or categorizes shared features of related objects, events, or other stimuli
Family resemblance theory Members of a category have features that appear to be characteristic of category members but may not be possessed by every member
Prototype The "best" or "most typical" member of a category
Exemplar theory A theory of categorization that argues that we make category judgments by comparing a new instance with stored memories for other instances of the category
Category-specific deficit A neurological syndrome that's categorized by an inability to recognize objects that belong to a particular category though the ability to recognize objects outside the category is undisturbed
Rational choice theory The classical view that we make decisions by determining how likely something is to happen, judging the value of the outcome, and then multiplying the two
Availability bias Items that are more readily available in memory are judged as having occurred more frequently
Heuristic A fast and efficient strategy that may facilitate decision making but does not guarantee that a solution will be reached
Algorithm A well-defined sequence of procedures or rules that guarantees a solution to a problem
Conjunction fallacy When people think that two events are more likely to occur together than either individual event
Representativeness heuristic A mental shortcut that involves making a probability judgment by comparing an object or event to a prototype of the object or event
Framing effects When people give different answers to the same problem depending on how the problem is phrased (or framed)
Sunk-cost fallacy A framing effect in which people make decisions about a current situation based on what they have previously invested in the situation
Prospect theory The proposal that people choose to take on risk when evaluating potential losses and avoid risks when evaluating potential gains
Frequency format hypothesis The proposal that our minds evolved to notice how frequently things occur, not how likely they are to occur
Means-end analysis A process of searching for the means or steps to reduce differences between the current situation and the desired goal
Analogical problem solving Solving a problem by finding a similar problem with a known solution and applying that solution to the current problem
Functional fixedness The tendency to perceive the functions of objects as fixed
Reasoning A mental activity that consists of organizing information or beliefs into a series of steps to reach conclusions
Practical reasoning Figuring out what to do
Theoretical reasoning Reasoning directed toward arriving at a belief
Belief bias People's judgments about whether to accept conclusions depend more on how believable the conclusions are than on whether the arguments are logically valid
Syllogistic reasoning Determining whether a conclusion follows from two statements that are assumed to be true
Created by: 100000033006215
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