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Geography Ch7

Weather and Hazards

Describe the exosphere. Where some satellites orbit. It extends for 10, 000km.
Describe the thermosphere. Where aurora lights appear, space shuttles and some satellites orbit.
Describe the mesosphere. Where most meteors burn up. It is the coldest part of theatmosphere.
Describe the stratosphere. Some jets fly in the lower part.
Describe the troposphere. Where most planes fly and where weather happens.
What is the order of each layer of the atmosphere in descending order? Exosphere, thermosphere, mesosphere, stratosphere and troposphere.
What role does the sun play in influencing weather patterns? The sun heats the air and the Earth's surface.The sun causes air to move and the sun creates moisture in the air which can form clouds or return to Earth as rain, dew, fog, snow or hail.
What is weather? The short term change in the atmosphere of a location.
What is climate? Climate is the regular weather conditions that are measured over a long time.
What is the major influence on our weather? The sun.
What is a heatwave? A weather hazard caused by extremely hot and humid days with very little air movement.
Identify 4 possible effects that heatwaves may have. Buckle railway lines, disrupt sporting events, case deaths and increase the use of electricity.
Explain why areas near the equator are warmer. The suns rays are more direct at the equator, so more energy is directed at that area and it heats up quickly.
Explain why the further away from the equator, the cooler. The suns rays are spread over a larger area and therefore cannot heat up as effectively.
What is a climograph used to show? The climate of a place over a 12-month period.
Define altitude. Height above sea level.
Define latitude. Distance north or south of the equator, measured in degrees, minutes and seconds.
What is a weather map? Weather maps use symbols to show regions of low and high pressure and weather evens such as warm and cold fronts.
What is a flood? Water inundation, usually when a river overflows its banks and covers the surrounding land.
What is a tornado? A wildly spinning column of air that drops down from under a cumulonimbus cloud and moves across the ground or the water.
What is a tropical cyclone? When winds spin around an area and gather energy by sucking in moist air.
What is the average weight of air? 1013 millibars.
What is atmospheric pressure? The weight of air.
What is considered high atmospheric pressure? Measurements higher than 1013 millibars.
What is considered low atmospheric pressure? Measurements lower than 1013 millibars.
What is a plan view? The view from directly above. (A bird's-eye view)
What is an oblique view? A view from an angle.
What is a satellite image? An image of the Earth's surface captured and transmitted from a satellite.
What is a ground-level view? Shows features as if you were standing next to or near it.
What is a contour map? A map that shows elevation. The interval of each contour line is the same.
What is a choropleth map? A map that uses dark and light shades of the same colour.
What is a topographic map? A map that shows the height and shape of the land by using contour lines, and shows other features such as roads and rivers.
What is a synoptic chart? A map showing weather systems.
What are GIS (Geographic Information Systems) maps? Computer programs that make it possible to combine layers of geographic data.
What is condensation? When water vapour in the air cools and turns into droplets of water.
What is evaporation? When water turns into water vapour when heated.
What is transpiration? The process by which water is lost from the pores of leaves into the atmosphere.
What form of energy powers the water cycle. Solar energy.
Describe the stratus cloud. Low, greyish clouds whose base can be anywhere between the ground level and 2km above sea level.
Describe the cumulus cloud. Fluffy, white piles that often evaporate. They can turn into cumulonimbus clouds. They lie between land and 2.5km above the ground.
Describe the stratocumulus cloud. Broad and flat at the bottom and puffy at the top. They lie between 1 and 2.5km. They produce drizzling rain.
Describe the cumulonimbus cloud. The huge, thick clouds that produce electric storms, heavy rain, snow and tornadoes they can stretch from near the ground to about 16km in the air.
Define land features. Landscape as a hill or valley.
Define landforms. A feature of the landscape such as a a hill, valley, mountain or plane.
Define water vapour. Water in its gas form, formed as a result of evaporation.
Define solar radiation. Energy from the sun that heats the Earth.
Define hemisphere. One half of the Earth that is divided y the equator.
Define the altocumulus cloud. Clouds that are found between about 2.5km and 6km above the ground. These are ripple clouds that may produce light showers.
Define weather hazards. Extreme weather conditions.
Define hectopascals. A unit of atmospheric pressure equal to one millibar.
Define millibars. A unit of atmospheric pressure.
Define a cyclone. Cyclones form from a cold air mass lying over tropical seas with surface temperatures greater than 26 degrees.
Define famine. An extreme scarcity of food.
Define malnutrition. Lack of nutrition.
Define political instability. A situation where a country is going through political problems.
Define humanitarium crisis. Where there is a critical threat to the health, safety, security and well being of a community.
Define political. Relating to the government.
Define social. Relating to society.
Define economic. Relating to business, managements and the economy.
What are the effects of drought? Loss of income for farmers, crops and livestock perish, farmers move to city, water catchment is low, bushfires and erosion.
What are 4 ways to save water? Using trickle irrigation systems, put a bucket in the shower, use mulch on gardens and use a trigger nozzle on a hose.
Created by: beckarr99