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XR102

XR 102 Midterm

QuestionAnswer
Which portion of the image receptor system functions to reduce the amount of exposure to produce an image? THE INTENSIFYING SCREEN
The inside, smooth surface of a cassette that contains flourescent phosphor is called? THE INTENSIFYING SCREEN
The purpose of the intensifying screen is? TO REDUCE THE AMOUNT OF EXPOSURE REQUIRED TO PRODUCE AN IMAGE
Which part of an intensifying screen absorbs x-ray energy and emits this energy in the form of light? PHOSPHOR LAYER
What is the purpose of the lead foil layer in the back of the cassette? TO PREVENT BACKSCATTER FROM FOGGING THE IMAGE
What term is applied to radiation that comes from the cassette back and the cassette tray and is directed toward the film? BACKSCATTER
Which part of the intensifying screen functions to increase screen efficiency? REFLECTIVE LAYER
The color of light emitted by a screen phosphor is called? SPECTRAL EMISSION
What are the commonly used phosphors for intensifying screens? SALTS OF RARE EARTH ELEMENTS
Screen speed is defined as? THE EFFICIENCY OF A SCREEN IN CONVERTING X-RAY TO LIGHT
What is meant by the term spectral emission? THE COLOR OF LIGHT EMITTED BY THE PHOSPHOR OF THE X-RAY SCREEN
Which of the following is an important rule to remember when cleaning the intensifying screen? NEVER POUR LIQUID CLEANER ONTO THE SCREEN
Which type of screen is better suited for a radiograph of a child's wrist? RS 50, RS 200, RS 400, RS 600 RS 50
What material is used to make radiographic film base? POLYESTER PLASTIC
What is the purpose of the tint that is added to the radiographic film based? REDUCE EYE STRAIN FOR THE PHYSICIAN
What are the components of film emulsion? GELATIN AND SILVER HALIDE CRYSTALS
What is the purpose of a wire mesh tool? TEST FOR FILM SCREEN CONTACT
Which tool do we use to test film screen contact? THE WIRE MESH TOOL
How often should a film screen contact test be performed? SEMI-ANNUALLY
The spectral sensitivity of the film must be matched to what? THE COLOR OF LIGHT EMITTED BY THE SCREENS
What is the proper method to store unopened boxes of film? STACK ON EDGE WITH THE DATE FACING OUT
What are the optimum storage conditions for unused x-ray film? A COOL DRY PLACE PROTECTED FROM X-RAYS AND CHEMICAL FUMES
Which term is defined as a numerical representation of the film's ability to transmit light? OPTICAL DENSITY (OD)
What film characteristic can be determined by the slope of the sensitometric curve? SPEED
A film with a steep, vertical curve indicates what? A VERY FAST FILM
The purpose of a photostimulable phosphor plate is? TO STORE THE IMAGE OF THE BODY PART UNTIL PROCESSED
When using the DR system, indirect conversion of x-ray energy requires how many steps? TWO
The system used to view and stored digital x-ray images is called? PACS. (PICTURE ARCHIVAL AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS)
The first digital imaging in radiography was done with the introduction of what? THE CT SCANNER
When a CR plate is inserted into the reader for processing, the phosphor is scanned with what? A LASER LIGHT
How many times can the phosphor in a CR image plate be used? TEN THOUSAND
True of false? The advantages of using CR and DR include; low dose to patient, wide range of dynamic image, and the ability to see the image quickly. TRUE
When splitting a CR cassette in half for two exposures, the half not being exposed should be covered with what? LEAD
When centering a body part for exposure, how should you position the body part? THE PART MUST BE PLACED ON THE CENTER OF THE PLATE OR IMAGE DETECTOR
What is an important factor to use when using digital systems for mobile radiography? A GRID
What is the purpose of a safelight filter? THE SAFELIGHT FILTER ONLY PERMITS THE PASSAGE OF LIGHT FREQUENCIES TO WHICH THE X-RAY FILM IS THE LEAST SENSITIVE
Which type of safelight filter should be used in the imaging department using green sensitive film? GBX FILTER
True or false? The following are possible causes of dark room fog on a radiograph; light colored walls, white light leaks, excessive developer time. TRUE
What is the optimum developer time and temperature for a MANUAL PROCESSOR? FIVE MINUTES AT 68 DEGREES FARENHEIT
What is the approximate time for an automatic processor? 90 SECONDS
What is the correct sequence of steps in an automatic processor? DEVELOPER, FIXER, WASH, DRY
The temperature for film developing in an automatic processing system is what? 95 DEGREES FARENHEIT
What are the two specified instruments required for monitoring processor performance? DENSITOMETER AND SENSITOMETER
Marks, exposures, or images on a radiograph that are not a part of the intended images are called; ARTIFACTS
What increases the likelihood of static artifacts? NOT ENOUGH HUMIDITY IN THE AIR
How often should sensitometry processor evaluation occurs? QUARTERLY
A dark room safelight should be mounted so that it is no closer than how many feet from the feed tray of the processor and the countertop? 4 FEET
name the steps of the daily start up routine for an automatic processor close wash tank drain, turn on water supply, close processor cover, allow processor to warm up, wipe down loading bench, check solution levels, run 4 clean up films, expose and process sensitometric films evaluate test and troubleshoot
how many 14x17" clean-up films should be run through the automatic processor before any films are processed for the day? 4
a substance easily penetrated by the xray beam is said to be radioluscent
radiation from the cassette back and the cassette tray that is scattered back toward the film is called back scatter
fluorescent crystals that are found in the intensifying screens phosphors
the term used to describe the effect of phosphors giving off light when they are exposed to xrays fluorescence
the efficiency of a screen in converting xrays to light screen speed
phosphors containing one of the following elements gadolinium, lanthanum or yttrium rare earth phosphors
this term refers to the color of light emitted by a phosphor spectral emission
any unwanted marks on an xray are called artifacts
a condition that exists when 2 screens are not in firm contact with both sides of the film poor film screen contact
a wire mesh test is performed how frequently? semi-annually
film emulsion consists of a mixture of gelatin and what other substance? silver halide crystals
a term used to desribe radiographic film along with contrast latitude
the characteristics of film response are plotted on a graph called a sensitometric curve
the numerical representation of the film's ability to transmit light optical density
the portion of the sensitometric curve that indicates the speed of the film the straight line portion
the portion of the sensitometric film that represents the maximum density D-max
special lights fitted with filters that are used specifically in dark rooms safelights
the safelight is not safe under all conditions, it must be no closer than 3-4' from the feed tray
the maximum wattage of safelight bulbs is 7-15 watts
which type of filters should be used in the darkroom? GBX filters
90 second processing is made possible by increasing the strength and temperature of the solutions in the processor
what is the first tank in an automatic processor? developer
what is the second tank in an automatic processor? fixer
what is the third tank in an automatic processor? wash
the air in the dryer portion of the automatic processor is heated to approximately 110 degrees
what is the temperature of the developer in an automatic processor? 95 degrees
the device used to measure the transmission of light through a tiny are of film is a densitometer
the device used to print a standard gray scale on a film is called sensitometer
artifacts that occur repeatedly at right angles to the direction of the film travel in an automatic film processor are called pi lines
what color light do rare earth phospohors emit? green, green yellow blue, blue-violet
which phosphor was used previously, but is now obsolete? calcium tungstate
rare earth intensifying screens are about how many times more efficient than calcium tungstate intensifying screens? 4 time more efficient
what is the term we use to describe the efficiency of a screen in converting xrays to light? screen speed
a screen with a greater efficiency requires less exposure, so the screen is said to be _____? faster
screens with RS (relative speed) 200-600 are used for what type of radiography? routine or general radiography
fine phosphors in a thin layer provide (lesser or greater)_______ radiographic detail, and require (more or less) ______ exposure? fine phosphors produce GREATER recorded detail, and require MORE exposure
screens with the RS (relative speed)of 50-100 are (slower or faster)_____ than regular screens, and provide (high or low)_____ detail images for small anatomical parts screens with a RS of 50-100 are SLOWER and provide HIGH detail images
what is the term used to describe the fact that the xray film has emulsion on both sides of it? duplitized
what is the term used to describe the radiographic film along with contrast? latitude
True or False: latitude and contrast and inversely related TRUE
when we are referring to the sensotometric or H&D curve, what does the toe of the curve represent? base + fog
when we are referring to the sensotometric or H&D curve, what does the shoulder of the curve represent? D-max
when we are referring to the sensotometric or H&D curve, what does the body of the curve represent? Density
what does the D-max portion of the H&D curve represent? the films maximum density
what does the base + fog portion of the H&D curve represent? the amount of light absorbed by the film plus any fog exposure to the film BEFORE processing
what does the straight-line portion of the H&D curve represent? film speed
The closer the straight line portion of the H&D curve graph is to the left, the (slower or faster) the film is? FASTER
when considering the inside of the darkroom, what color should the walls be? Light or dark colored paint? light colored to reflect the light from the safe light throughout the room increasing visibility in the dark