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The Italian

The______________arose in Italy, in part because of its thriving cities, increased trade, and wealthy merchant class. Renaissance
There subjects can be known as humanities, and the movement they inspired is known as _________. humanism
Their focus was also ________;that is, they had a worldly rather than a spiritual focus. secular
One of these humanists,the Italian diplomat ____________ ______________ wrote a book called The Courtiar. baldassare castiglione
At about the same time that Castiglione was finishing The Courtier, a fellow Italian, __________ ______________ of Florence, was writing another influential book. niccolo machiavelli
_________ __ _______, hisself a well-educated poet, supported some of the most talented artists of the day. lorenzo de medici
The henius ___________ __ ______ was a highly talented painter. leonardo da vinci
In Rome at the age of 24, __________________ _______________ won fame with his Pieta, a sculpture of Mary, the Mother of Jesus. michelangelo buonarroti
Raffaello Sanzio, who became known as _________, was a renowned painter and an accomplished architect. raphael
In the mid-1400s,the German _____________ ____________ cast the letters of the alphabet onto metal plates and locked those plates into a wooden press. johnannes gutenberg
The leading Christian humanist was _____________ ________. desiderius erasmus
During his stay, he become friends with an important fellow humanist and English statesman, __ ________ ____. sir thomas more
In an age of great writers, many scholar believe the greatest was English playwright __________ ________________. william shakespeare
Italian-born writer ____________ __ ______ wrote important works focusing on the role women played in society. christine de pisan
German artist __________ _____ visited Italy in late 1400s. albrecht durer
Known as the Flemish School, they used a technique of oil painting that had been perfected in the 1400s by the Flemish painter ___ ___ ____. jan van eyck
By the early 1500s, the concerns crystallized into a reform movement that eventually came to be called the _________ ___________. protestant reformation
To help raise money, he approved the sale of ______________. indulgences
It was in this year that _______ _______ made public his complaints about the church. Martin Luther
A ____________ is a goverment in which church and state are joined and in which officials are considered to be divinely inspired. theocracy
Next to Luther, ____ _______ was the most important Protestant reformer. John Calvin
Inspired by the ideas of Augustine, Calvin preached the doctrine of ______________. predestination
_______ ____ became king of England in 1509 at the age of 17. Henry V111
Henry's decided to have the marriage ___________, or declared invalid based on church laws, so that he could marry again. annulled
____________ __ was a Protestant at Heart. Elizabeth 1
Later, in response to the spread of protestantism,the church began a series of reforms known as the ____________________. Counter-Reformation
The most influential of these groups was the Society of Jesus, or the Jesuits. jesuits
The Jesuit order was founded in 1534 by _______ __ ________, a Basque nobleman and former soldier. ignatius of loyola
Recognizing the need to redefine the doctrines of the Catholic faith, Pope Paul 111 convened the ________ __ _______ in 1545. council of trent
________ _______________ was the archbishop of Milan from 1560 to 1584. charles borromeo
In france, _______ __ ______ worked to regain the district of Savoy, which had largely turned to Calvinism. francis of sales
Perhaps the most famous female spiritual leader was _______ __ _______. teresa of avila