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Ciccarelli & White

Chapter 8

QuestionAnswer
Human Development The scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age from conception until death
Longitudinal Design research design in which one participant or group of participants is studied over a long period of time
Cross-Sectional Design research design in which several different participant age-groups are studied at one particular point in time
Cross-Sequential Design research design in which participants are first studied by means of cross-sectional design but are also followed and assessed longitudinal
Nature the influence in our inherited characteristics on our personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions
Nurture the influence of the environment on personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions
Cognitive Development the development of thiking, problem solving, and memory
Scheme in the case, a mental concept formed through experiences with objects and events
Sensorimotor Piaget's first stage of cognitive developemtn in which the infant uses its senses and motor abilities to interact with objects in the environment
Object Permanence The Knowledge that an object exists even when it is not in sight
Preoperational Stage Piaget's second stage of cognitive development in which the preschool child learns to use language as a means of exploring the world
Egocentrism The inability to see the world through anyone else's eyes
Centration In Piaget's theory, the tendency of a young child to focus only on one feature of an object while ignoring other relevent features.
Conservation In Piaget's theroy, the ability to understand that simply changing the apperance of an object does not change the objects nature
Irreversibility In Piaget's theory, the inability of the young child to mentally reverse an action
Formal Operatonal Stage Piaget's last stage of cognitive development, in which the adolescent becomes capable of abstact thinking
Scaffolding Process in which a skilled learner gives help to a less skilled learner, reducing the amount of help as the less skilled learner becomes more caoable
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) Vygotsky's concept of the differnece between what a child can do alone and what a child can do with the help of a teacher
1.Cooing AT around 2 months of age, babies begin to make vowel-like sounds.
2.Babbling At 6 months, infants add consonant sounds to the vowels to make a babbling sound, which at times can almost sound like real speech
3.One-Word Speech Somewhere just before age 1, most children begin to say actual words (holophrases)
4.Telegraphic Speech At arounf a year and a half, toddlers begin to string words together to form a short, simple sentences using nouns and verbs, and adjectives
Whole Sentences Age 6 or so they are nearly as fluent as adults, limited vocabulary
Temperment The, behavior and emotional characteristics that are fairly well established at birth
1.Easy Regular in their schedules of waking,sleeping, and eating and are adaptible to change
2.Difficult Irregular in their schedules and are very unhappy about change
3.Slow to warm up Less grumpy, quieter, and more regular than difficult children but are slow to adapt to change
Attatchment The emotional bond between an infant and the primary caregiver
Secure Infants labled as secure were willing to get down from their mother's lap soon after entering the room with their mothers
Avoident Somewhat willing to explore
Ambivalent Aisnworth's study were clingy and unwilling to explore
Disorganized- Disoriented fearful and showed a depressed and dazed loook on their faces
Gender The behavior associated with being a male or female
Gender Idenity Perception of one's gender and behavior that is associated with that gender
Infant Trust vs. Mistrust
Toddler Autonmoy vs. Shame and Doubt
Preschool Age Initiative vs. Guilt
Elementary Industry vs. Inferiorty
Adolescence Idenity vs. Role Confusion
Early AdultHood Intimacy vs. Isolation
Middle Adulthood Generavity vs. Stagnation
Late AdultHood Ego Integrity vs. Despair
Pubirty The physical changes that ovvur in the body as sexual development reaches its peak
Adolescence The period of of life from 13 -20s, during which a young person is no longer physically a child but is not yet independent , self- supporting adult
Personal Fable Type of thought common to adolescents in which young people believe themselves to be unique and protected from harm
Imaginary Audience Type of thought common to adolescents in which young people belive that other people are just as concerned about the adolescent's thoughts and charateristics as they
Preconventional Morality First level of Kohlberg's stages of moral development in which the child behavior is governed by consequences of the behavior
Conventional Morality Second Level of Kphlberg's stages of moral development in whic the child's behavior in governed by conformig to the society's norms of behavior
Postconventional Third level of Kohlberg's stages of moral development in which a person's behavior is governed by the moral principles that have been decided on by the individual and that may be in disagreement with accepted social norms
Menopause The cessationof ovulationand menstrual cycles and the end of a woman's reproductive capability
Andropause Gradual changes in the sexual hormones and reproductive system of middle aged males
Intimacy An emotional and psychological closeness that is based on the ability to trust, share, and care, while still maintaining a sense of self
Generativity Provinding guiedence to one's children of next generation, or contributing to the well being of the next generation through career or volunteer work
Authoritarian Parenting Style of parenting in which a prents is rigid and overly strict, showing little warmth to the child
Permissive Parenting Style of Parenting in which parent makes few, if any demands on a child's behavior
Permissive Neglectful Permissive parenting in which parents are uninvolved with the child or child's behvaior
Permissive Indulgent Permissive parenting in whic parents are so involved that chuldren are allowed to behave without set limits
Authoritative Parenting Style of parenting in which parents combine warmth and affection with firm limits on a child's behavior
Ego Integrity Sense of wholeness that comes from having lived a full life possessing the ability to let go of regrets; the final completion of the ego
Activity Theory Theory of adjustments to aging that assumes older people are happier if they remain active in some way, such as volunteering or developing a hobby.
Created by: pkza