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Music exam 2

Music 100 exam

Harmony -simultaneous tones -working together
Tonality momentum toward a specific final tone
Primary chords includes three major chords: the tonic, the dominant, and the subdominant
interval -distance between 2 frequencies
tonic key main key
full cadence complete pause
chord 3 or more tones played together
key 12 tones
scale unique set of 7 tones
half cadence incomplete pause
chord progression logical sequences
consonance combination of sounds that feel stable or relaxed
major mode sounds of strength, optimism, and happiness
dissonance combination of sounds that feel tense or unstable
modulation change of key within a musical work
minor mode sounds of pathos, grief, and tragedy
baroque period -1600-1750 -dramatic and energetic -ornate and full of detail -major/minor tonality -terraced dynamics
age of reason -progress in science and mathematics -improved technology = new instruments -system of pitch organization
age of absolutism -absolute monarchs ruled with unlimited power -patronage system [royal court or church]
doctrine of affect music stimulating emotion and mood
opera -reflected ancient greek drama or religious stories -play that is sung
recitative -musically heightened speech -definite speech [sung not spoken] -free rhythm -Ex. Claudio Monteverdi: Orfeo
aria -song like -emphasis on melody and clear meter -Ex. Henry Purcell Dido and Aneas -first opera in English
chorus -creates atmosphere and comments on the action -Ex. Glory to God
Camerata developed the opera in Florence late 1500s
dance suite -multi-movement instrumental composition -Ex. Bach Orchestral Suite No. 3
hapsichord keyboard instrument built during the age of reason
concerto -multi-movement work for orchestra 1-3 soloists -three movements -returning theme: ritornello -Ex. Antonio Vivaldi Four seasons, spring
ritornello form returning theme
fugue subject single theme in a fugue
form refers to the arrangement or organization of the various elements in a work AA or AA'
repetition the immediate restatement of an idea, passage, or section
contrast the presentation of new material, significantly different from what came before A B A
return -like repetition but not immediate -returns after a contrasting section A B A or A B A'
variation restatement of a melody or other structure in which certain elements are in same while others are varies A, A1, A2
strophic form vocal work in which two or more verses of text are sung to the same melody
variation form consists of a main idea called a theme followed by a number of more or less varied restatements of the idea
binary form two large parts that are significantly different from each other
ternary form three clearly defined sections that form an ABA pattern
classical period -1750-1825 -Classical Ideal -natural ideals -simplicity favored -moderation -balance
enlightenment -Locke, Voltaire, Rousseau -Applied reason to social and political problems -developed social contact concept -promoted worth of the individual -anti-authoritarian and secular emphasis
franz joseph haydn -last important court composer -1732-1809 -worked for hungarian court -flourished under the patronage system -knew mozart and taught beethoven -composed symphonies, string quartets, operas, chamber music
wolfgang mozart -1756-1791 -child prodigy -left court position and moved to vienna to be independent composer -died in poverty
ludwig van beethoven -1770-1827 -1st independent composer -moved to vienna in 1792 -composer and performer -defined composer as an artist
classical style -simpler textures: homophonic texture -simpler melodies: even phrases -simple rational forms
sonata cycle -multi-movement blueprint for all instrumental genres -4 sections within: I, II, III, IV
sonata form -consists of three large sections: exposition, development, and recapitulation
exposition -presents the melodies [themes] and tonalities -broken up into 4 parts 1. First theme 2. transition [bridge] 3. Second theme 4. Closing theme
development -intensity, instability, change -explore and examine the ideas from the exposition -Reworks material from exposition (no new themes presented) -Finishes by returning to tonic key
recapitulation -First theme: tonic key -Transition on bridge -Does not modulates -Second theme: in tonic key -Closing theme: in tonic key -Sometimes a Coda
coda -tail -ending added to the recapitulation -emphasize final cadence and drain energy off of the piece
symphony large scale instrumental composition for a full orchestra Ex. Mozart Symphony no. 35 Ex. Beethoven Symphony no 5, I
concerto -for orchestra and soloist
string quartet -two violins, viola, and cello
solo sonata -instrumental soloist with piano accompaniment
opera buffa (comic opera) -reformed serious opera -plots drawn from contemporary life -stories poked fun at human shortcomings -Ex. Mozart: The Marriage of Figaro Act I scene I
oratorio -substitute for opera during lent -story from the bible -not staged -Ex. Frideric Handel: Messiah
fugue -instrumental work based on imitative polyphony -played on a single instrument -Ex. Bach Well Tempered Clavier
Created by: taydizzle25