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What are some Universal Emotions? anger fear disgust surprise happiness sadness
What are some facial expression for happiness? Smile + teeth + eyebrow raise + open mouth + maniacal
What are some facial expression for Surprise? Eyes wide + eyebrow raise + open mouth + extreme
What are some facial expression for disgust? eyebrows down and wrinkle upper lip + wrinkle nose + open mouth + extreme
What are three types of universal Emotions? Facial expression, behavioral expression, and physiological expression
where is the universal emotions found? across cultures, in newborns, in the congenitally blind.
Why is adaptive behavior so important? Drives us toward safety, we want to feel good, so we seek food, warmth, friendship, sex, Drives us toward safety-we don't want to feel bad, so we avoid things that make us afraid/angry.
Emotions drive positive social behavior? when there is injustice --> anger --> retribution when there is need --> sadness --> helping
Why do we have eyebrows? likely to signal emotions over long distances
What does the eyebrows do when there is an expression of aggression and disgust? eyebrows down
what does the eyebrows do when there is an expression of fear and surprise eyebrows up
What are emotions that require a social context? social emotions
What is it call when emotional reaction to accomplishment. (marked by upturned head, puffed out chest and outstretched arms. pride
what are the social function of pride? Communicates accomplishment to others, so other can then follow your example. Communicates recent gain of goods or status that may be of useful to other group members.
What type of social emotion is when emotional reaction to being caught breaking a social norm (covering up your face or body, blushing looking away) Embarrassment
What are some social functions of embarrassment? Communicates to others that you're sorry for breaking social norms. Showing embarrassment increases likelihood others will forgive you.
What are complex and mixed emotions? Experience of two or more emotions simultaneously.
Mixed emotions of joy + surprise? Amazement
Mixed emotions of Sadness + surprise? Disappointment
Mixed emotions of anger + joy Cruelty
Laughter Found across cultures Has signature facial, behavioral and physiological expression
What are some of the things that laughter has evolved to? may signal mating potential Shows intelligence Shows creativity Shows social knowledge/prowess
Emotion and expression: what comes first? Cognition precedes emotional expression I am happy, so i smile, I am sad, so i cry
What does James-Lange Theory involve? Facial feedback: People have been place in a facial expression that does not agree to what they should be expressing for example reading a comic book while showing an expression of sad.
Who published the Dermotological surgery that deals with depression? Finzi, 2006
Physiological arousal + cognitive interpretation = Emotional Experience
What experiment did Dutton and Aron did? Male participants asked to cross a bridge and then take a survey.
What were the outcomes of Dutton and Aron's experiment? 60 % on scary bridge called back and only 30% that were in safe bridge called. Heightened arousal(fear) caused by bridge was masattributed to attractive female experimenter.
What is the historical perspective? Stimulus -->Emotion -->physical Response
What is the James-Lange Theory? Stimulus -->Physical response --> emotion
What is Schachter's 2-factory Theory? Stimulus -->physical response & cognitive process (is that a giant gorilla) ---> emotion
What were Ledoux's Dual-route Theory? Fast route: amygdala --> body reacts quickly to stimulus, even if outside of conscious awareness.Phsysiological Response Slow Route: Prefrontal Cortex--> Brain consciously interprets stimulus and affects emotions accordingly.Cognitive response
Very quick assessment of danger, but not always accurate? Fast(amygdala) Route
Slower reaction time, but more accurate? Slow(cortical) route
What is it call when some stimuli are "preprogrammed" to trigger the amygdala (fear response)? Instinctual Fears (horse-tiger)
What is it call when there is a uncontrollable, rapid expression of emotion (as quick as 1/25 of a second) Micro-Expressions (patient wanted to kill her self in the weekend: showed a sign)
Even if reading is accurate, you don't know why they have that emotion? "Othello Error"
What are some signs that do predict lying? Increase pupil size Higher pitched voice Constrained lip movements Taking longer to answer questions.
What are some signs that predict not lying? Fidgeting and other automatic body movement Blinking or looking away Amount of eye contact
What are lie detectors for? Only detects fluctuations in general arousal Generally ineffetive Used primarily as a scare tactic by interrogators
What is it call when people insist something is morally wrong, but cannot come up with logical reasons? Moral Dumbfounding (it feels wrong)
What does witnessing moral wrongdoing causes? Disgusted facial response Same neurological response as disgust drop in blood pressure
What triggers Disgust? Actions that are culturally unacceptable, novel, or strange.
How can disgust make us more moral? Immoral acts tend to elicit disgust, motivating us to punish those that commit them
How can disgust make us less moral? Groups that seem strange or unacceptable may elicit disgust, motivating us to mistreat them.
People tend to underestimate the stability of happiness Dispositional Happiness
Long-term happiness is largely unaffected by? Falling in love Getting a divorce Lossing a love one
How long even after streme events, people most often return back to baseline level of happiness? 1 Year(little as 3 months)
What did Van Boven & Gilovich Experiement showed? Buying material goods had no happiness effect even a day later Buying experiental goods (party) did make people happier
What would make you the most lastingly happy? Spending 100 dollars on a night out with friends.
What are the three type of happiness? Happiness through Pleasure Happiness through Flow Happiness through meaning
Complete immersion in the present tasks?(time passes very quickly, flat affectivily) Flow
Happiness through pleasure involves? Packing life with as much pleasure, and as little pain as possible. No lasting impact (gaining or losing possesion.)
What is the impact of Happiness through Flow? doesn't increase positive affect (happiness) Does decrease negative affect (depression and anxiety)
What is Happiness through meaning? Knowing one's strengths and using them to serve other.
What does religion offers to people so why they are happier? Large social networks and frequent social activity. Opportunities to develop natural skills Opportunities to help others and serve a higher purpose.
Religion offers no more happiness than other activities that provide? Large, active social network Opportunities to increase mastery/skills opportunities for philanthropy
Imagining what might have been affects feelings about what did happen (causes emotional amplication) Counterfactuals
Things were almost better than they are (leads to less satisfaction) Upward counterfactuals
Things were almost worse than they are ( leads to more satisfaction) Downward counterfactual
What are problems with too many options? More time agonizing over making the best decision Greater Expectations Greater likelihood of making upward counterfacturals.
What would create the most opportunity for happiness? Going to restaurant with 5 items on menu.
How to become happier? Don't worry about attaining riches/stuff Don't be a worry-wart Tailor your life around what you do well
How to become happier? Serve a higher purpose Maintain an active social networks think about how things could be worse
Created by: jdolores11