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Immune System

QuestionAnswer
nonspecific defense mechanisms physical barriers (unbroken skin), natural deterrents (fluids and cells), infammatory response
specific defense mechanisms antibodies and complements
two forms of immunity natural and acquired
natural (inante) immunity not for certain disease, no prior exposure
natural immunity example macrophage
two types of acquired immunity passive and active
passive aquired immunity protective substances from human or animal
passive aquired immunity examples breast milk and antitoxins
active aquired immunity direct exposure, stimulates immune response
active aquired immunity examples vaccines and chicken pox
antigens disease causing agents
two types of immune responses humoral (antibody-mediated) and cellular (cell-mediated)
humoral immunity production of B lymphocytes, produce antibody, antigen-antibody complex, phagocytosis
antigen-antibody complex antibodies combine with antigens
cellular immunity produces T cells and NK cells, cytotoxic
cytotoxic toxic to cells
bacteria unicellular, prokaryotic microorganisms
bacteria shape round, rod, spiral
most common organism on planet bacteria
g- bacteria more substantial cell wall, gram stain does not enter cell
g+ bacteria less substantial cell wall, gram stain enters cell
which bacteria are easier to treat g+
bacteriostatic drugs prevent replication
bacteriocidal drugs kill bacteria immediately
superinfection infection following a previous infection from resistant microorganisms
parasites multicellular or single-celled, not bacteria or fungi
parasitic relationship asymmetrical symbiotic (benefits from host, host has no benefit or is harmed)
most common parasites pinworms, roundworms, tapeworms
parasite transmission through contaminated food or soil
virus ultramicroscopic infectious pathogen
virus replication within cell of a living host
what drugs are ineffective for viruses? antibiotics
fungi plant based, yeasts, molds, mildews
fungi replication through spores
antivirul drug examples acyclovir, valacyclovir
antifungal drug use therapy of systemic or topical yeast infections and superficial fungal infections
antifungal drug example fluconazole
most common HIV HIV-1
HIV transmission sexual contact, body fluids, birth from mother to child
AIDS Aquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
Stage 1 of AIDS initial transmission/infection
Stage 2 of AIDS immune system suppressed
Stage 3 of AIDS signs/symptoms appear
Stage 4 of AIDS opportunistic infections lead to CD4 cell count or level below 200 in blood
Stage 5 of AIDS wasting to death
example of autoimmune disease Lupas
antibiotic adverse effects gastrointestinal distress, yeast infections, hypersensitivity reactions
hypersensitivity reactions release of histamine, rash-wheezing-SOB-anaphylactic shock
beta lactam antibiotics penicillin binding proteins in bacteria cell walls
penicillin side effects increased bleeding and bruising
penicillinase resistant bacteria enzyme that breaks down penicillin
Penicillin G first generation, not prescribed now, bacteriocidal
Penicillin VK bacteriocidal, amoxicillin
cephalosporin antibiotics similar to penicillin, grouped in generations 1-5
cephalosporin drug examples keflex, ceftin, cefzil
macrolide antibiotics new, bacteriostatic
macrolide antibiotic drug examples erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin
erythromycin adverse effects ototoxicity, liver disfunction, colitis
azythromycin long 1/2 life, treats lyme disease
aminoglycoside antibiotic function inhibit protein synthesis, bacteriocidal
aminoglycoside adverse effect ototoxicity, respiratory paralysis, deafness in children
ear infection medicine Cortisporin Otic
eye infection medicine TobraDex
tetrcycline antibiotics adverse effects photosynthesis, cant be taken with food, milk, bone formation disruption
doc for intracelluar infections tetracycline antibiotics
minocycline most active tetracycline, treats meningitis and rheumatoid arthritis
sulfa antibiotics treats kidney infections
sulfa antibiotic adverse effect must drink water
quinolone antibiotic function prevent bacteria DNA from unwinding and duplicating
quinolone antibiotic contraindications antacids
drug resistance a microorganisms ability to live and grow in the presence of an intiinfective or antimicrobial drug, result of genetic mutation
how to prevent antibiotic resistance avoid unnessecary use in humans and animals, use most specific antibiotic, no leftover pills
Created by: TaylorRabalais
 

 



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