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Psych 100 Final

Final Exam for Dr. Alvarez's Psych 100 class

localization of function notion that discrete brain regions control discrete aspects of mental functioning
Broca's area left frontal lobe is connected to producing speech fluently
Wernicke's area left temporal lobe is connected to understanding speech that makes sense, even though fluent
Wilhelm Wundt • Proponent of structuralism
William James • Proponent of functionalism
structuralism o Uncover basic elements of consciousness and the way they combine
functionalism o Consciousness serves a purpose (is functional, duh)
author of first psych textbook William James
person who positied "paradigms" Thomas Kuhn
father of psychology Wilhelm Wundt
scientific revolution • Paradigm shift occurs when there is an anomaly that cannot be explained within the paradigm
psychodynamic metaphor Awareness is like an iceberg; the small portion above the water is the conscious, the larger bit below the water is the unconscious
psychodynamic method seek to understand the meanings of a client’s mental live using the case stud method
psychodynamic data therapist seeks understanding of the thoughts, feelings, and actions of the client.
behaviorist metaphor humans and other animals are like machines
behaviorist method experimental
behaviorist data quantitative empirical data analyses that can be replicated
cognitive metaphor the mind is like a computer
cognitive method experimental method
cognitive data memory and decision-making
evolutionary metaphor we are all runners in a race competing for survival
evolutionary method mostly deductive, some experimental
evolutionary data often start with a known behavior in a species and attempt to explain it on the basis of evolutionary principles
three assumptions of behaviorism • Environmentalism: shaped by the environment
four characteristics of good psychological research theoretical framework, standardized procedures, generalizability, objective measurement
theoretical framework • Psychologists are interested in determining the causes of mental events and behaviors
standardized procedures • Expose the participants to as similar procedures as possible
generalizability • Research studies take samples from a limited portion of the entire population
objective measurement • To study a variable, you need a way to measure it
three techniques to determine reliability test-retest, internal consistency, inter-rater
interrater consistency consistency across people.
three types of validity face, criterion, construct
criterion validity the degree to which a measure allows a researcher to distinguish among groups on the basis of certain behaviors or responses
construct validity : the degree to which a measure actually assesses what it claims to assess
Convergent validity should correlate with related measures
Discriminate validity should not correlate with unrelated measures
three types of descriptive research case study, naturalistic observation, survey research
6 steps in experimental research Framing a hypothesis, operationalizing variables, developing a standardized procedure, selecting and assigning participants, applying statistical techniques to the data, drawing conclusions
internal validity are the methods sound or flawed?
external validity does the experimental situation resemble a situation in the real world?
sensory neurons transmit info from sensory receptors to brain (afferent)
motor neurons transmit commands away from the brain to the muscles and glands (efferent)
interneurons pass info betwixt the various sensory and motor neurons
dendrites receive info from other neurons
cell body nucleus, creates neurotransmitter (NT) molecules
Axon long extension from cell body, transmits info to other neurons
Myelin sheath derived from glial cells, insulates nerve cell, speeds up conduction of nerve messages at the nodes of ranvier
Terminal buttons of the axon release neurotransmitters
Synapse space between two neurons
resting neuron potential -70 millivolts
effect of sodium na+ ions flowing in depolarizes the membrane (brings volts closer to 0) which excited the neuron, makes it more likely to fire
effect of potassium k+ flowing out hyperpolarizes the membranes which inhibits the neuron, makes it less likely to fire
graded potential spreading voltage changes, which have two characteristics
action potential • if the summated activity at the axon hillock raises the membrane potential past threshold, an action potential (firing of a neuron) will occur
Glutamate excitatory nt involved in learning
GABA inhibitory neurotransmitter, found in 1/3 of brain neurons, Involved in regulation of anxiety (valium, alcohol)
Dopamine (DA) produced in the substantial nigra
Serotonin (5ht) regulation of mood, sleep, eating, arousal, and pain
Acetylcholine (Ach) learning and memory
Endorphins elevate mood and reduce pain
pituitary master gland
thyroid growth/metabolism, energy/mood
adrenal glands adrenaline release
pancreas releases insulin
gonads influence sexual development and behavior
somatic/voluntary nervous system typically involved in intentional actions, but also handles things like posture and balance, transmits sensory info to the central nervous system and carries out motor commands
autonomic nervous system conveys info to and fro internal bodily structures that carry out basic life processes, like respiration and digestion
sympathetic emergency, fight or flight
parasympathetic vegetative functions, blood-sugar level regulation
o pons nerve fibers that connect the higher brain centers and spinal cord
o cerebellum controls posture, balance, and smooth movements
o superior colliculus reflexive orienting to visual stimuli
o inferior colliculus reflexive orienting to auditory stimuli
thalamus relay station
o Amygdala Regulates emotions, particularly fear
o Hippocampus Explicit memory
• Cerebral cortex Provides for flexible control of patterns of movement, Permits subtle discrimination among complex sensory patterns, Makes symbolic thinking possible
o Frontal lobe abstract thinking, planning, social skills
o Broca’s area speech production, grammar
o Parietal lobe touch, spatial orientation, nonverbal thinking
o Occipital lobe vision
o Wernicke’s area speech comprehension
o Temporal lobe language, hearing, visual pattern recognition
heritability of traits between twins .15 to .50
Law of effect behavior is controlled by its consequences
Thorndike cats in a box learned to pull a string to get to food
Operant (instrumental) conditioning Reponses operate on the environment and are instrumental in receiving reward or avoiding punishment
Long-term potentiation tendency of a group of neurons to fire more readily after consistent stimulation from other neurons
Ratio schedules payoffs are tied to number of responses emitted
Fixed ratio every nth response
Variable ratio the average is every nth response
Interval schedules payoffs are delivered only after some interval of timeObservational learning
Modeling learn to reproduce behavior exhibited by a model
internal locus our actions determine our fate
external locus external forces determine fate
Mental representations a mental model of a stimulus or category of stimuli
Sensory representations Store info in a sensory mode (visual, auditory, tactile)
Verbal representations Info stored in words
Motoric representations Memories of motor actions, muscle movement
Sensory registers Hold info for a fraction of a second after the stimulus disappears
Short term memory holds a small amount of info in consciousness for a limited duration
Long term Memory Representations of facts, images, etc that may persist over a lifetime
Iconic storage momentary memory for visual information
Echoic memory momentary memory for auditory information
Declarative memory facts and events
Explicit memory conscious retrieval or info
Implicit memory expressed in behavior, doesn’t require conscious recollection
Procedural memory “how to” knowledge of procedures or skills
central executive controls “executive” processes such as rehearsal, reasoning, and balancing two tasks simultaneously
visual memory store temporary image (holds for 20-30 seconds)
verbal memory store involves storage of verbal items
Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex working memory and conscious decision making
Frontal lobes working memory, procedural memory, episodic memory
Amygdala fear conditioning and avoidance learning
Spacing effect superiority of memory for info rehearsed over longer intervals
Decay theory memory is like a fading neural trace that is weakened with disuse
Interference theory conflict between old and new memories
Guy who altered Binet’s intelligence scale Terman
Guy who developed standardized IQ scale Wechsler
Mean and Standard Deviation on standardized IQ scale M=100, SD=15
general (g-factor) score well globally on all scales and in all academic areas
Specific (s-factors) specific abilities unique to certain tests or shared only by a subset of tests
Developed the two factor theory Spearman
Two factor theory g-factors and s-factors
Cattell and Horn’s theory Gf-Gc theory
Gf fluid intelligence
Gc crystallized intelligence
Fluid intelligence (Gf) intellectual capacities that have no specific content but are used in processing info and approaching new problems
Crystallized intelligence (Gc) people’s stored knowledge
Gardner’s theory theory of multiple intelligences
7 different types of intelligence Linguistic/verbal, Logic/mathematical, Musical, Bodily/kinesthetic, Spatial, Intrapersonal (self-understanding), Interpersonal (social skills)
Stroop test names of colors written in different colors
Attention the process by which we focus out conscious awareness
Selective attention the ability to focus on one element amidst a constant flow of sensations
Selective inattention Process by which important, but emotionally upsetting, info is ignored
Divided attention Splitting attention between two or more complex tasks at the same time
Covert orienting Deployment of visual attention to a location other than the focus of the foveal gaze
Conscious mental events that you are aware of (small)
Preconscious mental events that can be brought in to conscious awareness easily
Unconscious mental events that are inaccessible to awareness
Hindbrain/midbrain arousal and sleep
Thalamus shines a spotlight on important info and inhibits attention to irrelevant info
Prefrontal cortex conscious control of info processing
Delta waves slow, <4 hz, stage 3 and 4 sleep, coma, MR
Theta waves 4-7 hz, stage 1 sleep
Alpha waves 8-12 hz, relaxed state with eyes closed
Beta waves >13 hz, information processing
Sleep Stage 1 slowing of waves, increase in theta waves, few minutes
Sleep Stage 2 bulk of sleep, 45%, sleep spindles (motor inhibition) and high amplitude k-complexes
Sleep Stage 3 appearance of delta waves
Sleep Stage 4 mostly delta waves, relaxed muscles, decreased rate of breathing, slightly lower body temp.
REM more desynchrony in EEG (beta waves), dreaming, increased nervous system activity, motor paralysis
Created by: EllaLow