Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't Know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Psychology 100

Ch. 7 & Ch. 9

tip-of-the tongue phenomenon when forgotten info feels like it's just out of reach
how does info get into memory? encoding
how is info maintained in memory? storage
how is info pulled back out of memory? retrieval
encoding involves forming a memory code
an example of encoding emphasizing how a word looks, sounds, what it means
storage involves maintaining encoded info in memory over time (info storage is not enough to guarantee that you'll remember something)
retrieval involves recovering info from memory stores
what might cause one to forget? deficiencies in any of the three key processes in memory
Attention involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events
what is the key issue of locating where the "filter" is? whether stimuli are screened out early, during sensory input, or late, after the brain has processed the meaning or significance of the input
cocktail party phenomenon crowded party where many conversations are taking place; filtering out the other conversations; if someone in another conversations mentions your name, you may still notice it ("late" selection)
Lavie's theory on location of "filter" idea that the location of the "filter" depends on "cognitive load" of current info processing
structural encoding relatively shadowing processing that emphasizes physical structure of a stimulus
example of structural encoding words flash on a screen; registers how they are printed or the length of the words
phonemic encoding emphasizes what a word sounds like (naming or saying)
semantic encoding emphasizes the meaning of verbal input (thinking about the objects and actions the words represent)
levels-of-processing theory theory proposing that deeper levels of processing result in longer-lasting memory codes (deeper processing leads to enhanced memory)
elaboration linking a stimulus to other info at the time of encoding
example of elaboration you read that phobias are often caused by classical conditioning and apply this idea to your own fear or spider
imagery creation of visual images to represent words (can be used to enrich encoding)
example of imagery juggle; imagine someone juggling balls (concrete object). Truth; much more difficulty forming an image (abstract object)
16 pairs of words theory high-high (juggler-dress) high-low (letter-effort) low-high (duty-hotel) low-low (quality-necessity)
dual-coding theory theory stating memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes, since either can lead to recall
self-referent encoding describing how or whether info is personally relevant (making material personally meaningful can also enrich encoding)
motivation to remember info perceived to be important; more likely to exert extra effort to attend to (encoding processes can be enhanced by strong motivation)
sensory memory preserves info in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second (allows visual patter, sound, or touch to linger for a brief moment after sensory stimulation is over)
example of sensory memory rapidly moving a lighted sparkler or flashlight in circles in the dark (sparklers); preserves image long enough for you to perceive a continuous circle rather than separate points of light
short-term memory (STM) limited capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed info for about 10-20 seconds
rehearsal process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the info
chunking grouping familiar stimuli stored as a single unit
phonological loop represents all of the STM in earlier models; at work when you use recitation to temporarily hold onto a phone number
visuospatial sketchpad permits people to temporarily hold and manipulate visual images; at work when you try to mentally rearrange the furniture in your room or map out a route to travel somewhere
central executive controls the deployment of attention, switching the focus of attention as needed; coordinates actions of the other module
episodic buffer temporary, limited capacity store that allows the various components of working memory to integrate info; serves as interface between working memory and long-term memory
working memory capacity (WMC) refers to one's ability to hold and manipulate info in conscious attention
long-term memory (LTM) an unlimited capacity store that can hold info over lengthy periods of time
flashbulb memories unusually vivid and detailed recollections of circumstances in which people learned about momentous, newsworthy events
clustering tendency to remember similar or related items in groups
conceptual hierarchy multilevel classification system based on common properties among items
schema an organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from a previous experience with the object or event
Tuckey and Brewer study suggests that people are more likely to remember things that are consistent with their schemas than things that aren't
Koriat, Goldsmith, and Pansky study people sometimes exhibit better recall of things that violate their schema-based expectations
semantic network consists of nodes representing concepts, joined together by pathways that link related concepts
spreading activation when people think about a word, their thoughts naturally go to related words
connectionist models take inspiration from how neural networks appear to handle info instead of taking their cue from how computers process info (info lies in strengths of connections)
parallel distributed processing simultaneous processing of the same info that's spread across networks of neurons
misinformation effect occurs when participants' recall of an event they witnessed is altered by introducing misleading postevent info
reality monitoring refers to the process of deciding whether memories are based on external sources (one's perception's of actual events) or internal sources (one's thoughts and imaginations)
source monitoring involves making attributions about the origins of memories
source-monitoring error occurs when a memory derived from one source is misattributed to another source
destination memory involves recalling from whom one was told what
retention refers to proportion of material retained (remembered)
recall measure of retention requires subjects to reproduce info to their own without any cues
recognition measure of retention requires to select previously learned info form an array of options
relearning measure of retention requires a subject to memorize info a second time to determine how much time or how much practice trials are saved by having learned it before
pseudoforgetting can't really forget something you never learned; lack of attention
decay theory theory that proposes that forgetting occurs because memory traces fade with time
interference theory theory that proposes that people forget info because of competition from other material (2 kinds)
retroactive interference occurs when new info impairs the retention of previously learned info
proactive interference occurs when previously learned info interferes with retention of new info
encoding specificity principle idea that value of a retrieval cue depends on how well it corresponds to the memory code
transfer-appropriate processing occurs when the initial processing of info is similar to the type of processing required by the subsequent measure of retention
repression refers to keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious
long-term potentiation (LTP) a long lasting increase in neural excitability at synapses along a specific neural pathway
retrograde amnesia involves the loss of memories for events that occurred prior to the onset of amnesia
anterograde amnesia involves the loss of memories for events that occur after the onset of amnesia
consolidation hypothetical process involving the gradual conversion of info into durable memory codes stores in long-term memory
declarative memory system handles factual info (definitions)
nondeclarative memory system houses memory for actions, skills, conditioned responses, and emotional responses (motor skills)
episodic memory system made up on chronological, or temporally dated, recollection of personal experiences
semantic memory system contain general knowledge that is not tied to the time when the info was learned
prospective memory involves remembering to perform actions in the future
retrospective memory involves remembering events from the past or previously learned info
mnemonic devices strategies for enhancing memory
overlearning continued rehearsal of material after you appear to have mastered it
serial position effect occurs when subjects show better recall for items at the beginning and end of a list than for items in the middle
link method involves forming a mental image of items to be remembered in a way that links them together
method of Loci involves taking an imaginary walk along a familiar path where images of items to be remembered are associated with certain locations
Created by: ebobbitt29
Popular Psychology sets




Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards