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Who never had a university degree, but achieved much prominence? Erik Erikson
Who trained Erik Erikson? Freud's daughter, Anna.
Unlike Freud's idea that personality was shaped by the time a person was 5, Erikson suggested that personality __________. continues to develop in a succession of eight stages over the entire life span.
Who saw the Ego as an independent part of the personality that is not dependent on or subservient to the id? Erik Erikson
Which man from Frankfurt, Germany had Jewish peers that rejected him because he was tall and blond and had Nordic facial features. Erik Erikson
The eight successive stages encompassing the life span. At each stage, we must cope with a crisis in either an adaptive or a maladaptive way. Psychosocial stages of development.
The idea that human development is governed by a sequence of stages that depend on genetic or hereditary factors. Epigenetic principle of maturation.
Erikson's idea of the turning point faced at each developmental stage Crisis
Erikson's idea of motivating characteristics and beliefs that derive from the satisfactory resolution of the crisis at each developmental stage. Basic Strengths
The self-image formed during adolescence that integrates our ideas of what we are and what we want to be. Ego Identity
The failure to achieve ego identity during adolescence. Identity Crisis
A condition that occurs when the ego consists solely of a single way of coping with conflict. maldevelopment
The application of erikson's lifespan theory, along with psychoanalytic principles, to lthe study of historical figures. Psychohistorical Analysis.
A personality assessment technique for children in which structures assembled from dolls, blocks, and other toys are analyzed. Play constructions.
To allport, distinguishing characteristics that guide behavior. Traits are measured on a continuum and are subject to social, environmental, and cultural influences. Traits.
Traits that are peculiar to an individual, as opposed to traits shared by a number of people. Personal dispositions
The most pervasive and powerful human traits. Cardinal Traits.
The handful of outstanding traits that describe a person's behavior. Central Traits.
The least important traits, which a person may display inconsipcuously and inconsistently. Secondary Traits.
Specific, inflexible responses to specific stimuli; several may combine to form a trait. Habits.
To Allport, things that have specific objects of reference and involve either positive or negative evaluations. Attitudes.
The idea that motives in the normal, mature adult are independent of the childhood experiences in which they originally appeared. Functional Autonomy of motives.
The level of functional autonomy that relates to low-level and routine behaviors. Perseverative functional autonomy.
The level of functional autonomy that relates to our values, self-image, and lifessstyle. Propriate functional autonomy
Allport's term for the ego or self. Proprium
A method of personality assessment that involves the study of a person's written or records. Personal-Document technique.
Spontaneous and seemingly purposeless behavior , usually displayed without our conscious awareness. Expressive behavior
Consciously planned behavior determined by the needs of a given situation and designed for a specific purpose, usually to bring about a change in one's environment. Coping behavior.
A statistical technique based on correlations between several measures, which may be explained in terms of underlying factors. Factor analysis.
Traits possessed in some degree by all persons. Common traits.
Traits possessed by one or a few people Unique traits.
Traits that describe our skills and how efficiently we will be able to work toward our goals. Ability Traits.
Traits that describe our general behavioral style in responding to our environment. Temperament traits
Traits that describe our motivations and interests. Dynamic traits.
Traits that show a correlation but don't constitute a factor because they aren't determined by a single outcome. Surface traits.
Stable, permanent traits that are the basic factors of personality, derived by the method of factor analysis. Source traits.
Source traits that depend on our physiological characteristics. Constitutional Traits.
Source traits that are learned from social and environmental interactions. Environmental-mold traits.
Permanent constitutional source traits that provie energy for goal-directed behavior. The basic innate units of motivation. Ergs.
The representation in a chart or diagram of the relationships among ergs, sentiments, and attitudes. Dynamic Lattice
The self-concept, which is the organizer of our attitudes and motivations. Self-Sentiment
The study of the relationship between genetic or hereditary factors and personality traits. Behavioral Genetics.
An arrangement of innate needs, from strongest to weakest, that activates and directs behavior. Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow's term for the innate needs in his needs-hierarchy theory. Instinctoid Needs.
The lower needs; failure to satisfy them produces a deficiency in the body. Deficit (deficiency) needs.
The higher needs; although growth needs are less necessary than deficit needs for survival, they involve the realization and fulfillment of human potential. Growth (being) needs.
The fullest development of the self. Self-actualization
Innate needs to know and to understand. cognitive needs.
The motivation of self-actulizers, which involves maximizing personal potential rather than striving for a particular goal object. Metamotivation
States of growth or being toward which self-actualizers evolve. Metaneeds.
A thwarting of self-development related to failure to satisfy the metaneeds. Metapathology.
A moment of intense ecstasy, similar to a religious or mystical experience, during which the self is transcended. Peak Experience.
The fear that maximizing our potential will lead to a situation with which we will be unable to cope. Jonah complex.
The basic human motivation to atualize, maintain, and enhance the self. Actualization Tedency.
The process by which we judge experiences in terms of their value for fostering or hindering our actualization and growth. Organismic valuing process.
Acceptance, love, and approval from others. Positive regard.
Approval granted regardless of a person's behavior. In Rogers' person-centered therapy, the therapist offers the client this. Unconditional positive regard.
The condition under which we grant ourselves acceptance and approval. positive self-regard
To Rogers, a belief that we are worthy of apprval only when we express desirable behaviors and ttitudes and refrain from expressing those that bring disapproval from others; similar to the Freudian superego. Conditions of worth
Approval, love, or acceptance granted only when a person expresses desirable behaviors and attitudes. Conditional positive regard.
A discrepancy between a person's self-concept and aspects of his or her experience. Incongruence.
Roger's term for self-actualization, for developing all facets of the self. Fully functioning person.
Rogers' approach to therapy in which the client(not the patient) is assumed to be responsible for changing his or her personality. Person-Centered Therapy.
A group therapy technique in which people learn about their feelings and about how they relate to (or encounter) one another. Encounter groups
A self-report technique for assessing aspects of the self-concept. Q-Sort Technique
Who's theory attempts to explain human behavior and growth through eight stages, from birth to death? Erik Erikson
Who believed that all aspects of personality could be explined in terms of turning points, or crises, we must meet and resolve at each developmental stage? Erik Erikson
According to Erikson,the oral-sensory stage of psychosocial development, paralleling Freud's oral stage of psychosexual development, occuring during our first year of life. Trust vs. Mistrust
Which of Erikson's 8 psychosocial stages occurs during our first year of life? Trust vs. Mistrust
According to Erikson, a stage also known as the muscular-anal stage at the second and third years of life (much like Freud's anal stage) where children rapidly develop a variety of physical and mental abilities and are able to do many things for themself. Autonomy versus Doubt and Shame
Which of Erikson's 8 psychosocial stages occurs during the second and third years of life? Autonomy versus Doubt and Shame
What is the basic strength of the Oral-sensory stage? Hope
What is the basic strength of the Muscular-anal stage? Will
What is the basic strength of the Locomotor-genital stage? Purpose
What is the basic strength of the Latency stage? Competence
What is the basic strength of the Adolescence stage? Fidelity
What is the basic strength of the Young adulthood stage? Love
What is the basic strength of the Adulthood stage? Care
What is the basic strength of the Maturity-old age stage? Wisdom
How many psychosocial stages of development did Erikson come up with? 8
According to Erikson, a stage also known as the locomotor-genital stage, which occurs between age 3 & 5. It is similar to Freud's phallic stage, in which motor and mental abilities are continuing to develop, and children can accomplish more on their own. Initiative vs. Guilt
Which of Erikson's 8 psychosocial stages occurs between ages 3 and 5? Initiative vs. Guilt
Erikson's latency stage, occuring from ages 6 to 11 where the child begins school and is exposed to new social influences. Industriousness vs. Inferiority
Which of Erikson's 8 psychosocial stages occur between ages 6 and 11. Industriousness vs. Inferiority
Erikson's Adolescence stage, occuring between ages 12 and 18, in which we must meet and resolve the crisis of our basic ego identity. Forming a self-image. Identity Cohesion vs. Role Confusion
Erikson's Young Adulthoods stage, extending from adolescence to about age 35, in which we establish our independence from parents and quasi-parental institutions, and begin to function mroe autonomously as mature, responsible adults. Intimacy vs. Isolation
Which of Erikson's 8 psychosocial stages occur between ages 12 and 18? Identity Cohesion vs. Role Confusion
Which of Erikson's 8 psychosocial stages occur from the end of adolescence to about age 35? Intimacy vs. Isolation
Erikson's Adulthood stage, age 35-55, in which maturity in which we need to be actively involved in teaching and guiding the next generation. Generativity vs. Stagnation
Which of Erikson's 8 psychosocial stages occur between ages 35-55? Generativity vs. Stagnation
The basic strength that emerges from generativity in adulthood. Care
Erikson's final stage of psychosocial development, maturity and old age, in which we are confronted with a choice between ego integrity and despair. Ego Integrity vs. Despair
What is the last stage in Erikson's 8 stages of development? Ego Integrity vs. Despair
A distinguishing personal characteristic or quality. Trait
In what stage of the development of the proprium do infants become aware of their own existence and distinguish their own bodies from objects in the environment? Bodily self
In what stage of the development of the proprium do children realize that their identity remains that intact despite the many changes that are taking place? Self-Identity
In what stage of the development of the proprium do Children learn to take pride in their accomplishments? Self-Esteem
In what stage of the development of the proprium do children come to recognize the objects and people that are part of their own world? Extension of self
In what stage of the development of the proprium do children develop actual and idealized images of themselves and their behavior and become aware of satisfying or failing to satisfy parental expectations? Self-Image
In what stage of the development of the proprium do children begin to apply reason to logic to the solution of everyday problems? Self as a rational coper
In what stage of the development of the proprium do young people begin to formulate long-range goals and plans? Propriate striving
In what stage of the development of the proprium are adults normal, functionally autonomous, independent of childhood motives, mature adults that function rationally in the present and consciously create their own lifestyles? Adulthood
Another term for the self or ego. Proprium
A system of thought in which human interests and values are of primary importance. Humanism
A type of therapy that suggests that the ability to change and improve personality is centered within the person. Person-Centered Therapy
According to Carl Rogers, who provides unconditional positive regard? Parents