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Ab Test 3 Pt 2

Abnormal Test 3 Part 2

QuestionAnswer
When someone has a personality disorder why might they have problems in cognitive tasks? they could have reduction in prefrontal gray matter
What is backward masking? If someone is shown something that they are asked to remember and then they are shown something else they have a hard time remembering the things from the first set of data.
Who might have problems with backward masking? someone with a personality disorder
When someone has a personality disorder why might they have problems in cognitive tasks? they could have reduction in prefrontal gray matter
What is backward masking? If someone is shown something that they are asked to remember and then they are shown something else they have a hard time remembering the things from the first set of data.
What are some deficits someone with a personality disorder may have? working memory, dysregulation of dopamine, enlarged ventricles.
When someone has a personality disorder why might they have problems in cognitive tasks? they could have reduction in prefrontal gray matter
Who might have problems with backward masking? someone with a personality disorder
What is backward masking? If someone is shown something that they are asked to remember and then they are shown something else they have a hard time remembering the things from the first set of data.
Why might someone with a personality disorder have trouble with working memory? they may have less temporal gray matter
Who might have problems with backward masking? someone with a personality disorder
What are some deficits someone with a personality disorder may have? working memory, dysregulation of dopamine, enlarged ventricles.
Why might someone with a personality disorder have trouble with working memory? they may have less temporal gray matter
Low levels of seratonin is linked to what type of behavior? agressive and impulsive
What are some deficits someone with a personality disorder may have? working memory, dysregulation of dopamine, enlarged ventricles.
Aggression and impulsivity are linked to deficits in what nerotransmitter? Seratonin
Low levels of seratonin is linked to what type of behavior? agressive and impulsive
Someone with low levels of seratonin may have structural and functional differences in what lobes of the brain? frontal and temporal
Aggression and impulsivity are linked to deficits in what nerotransmitter? Seratonin
Structural and Functional deficits in the frontal and temporal lobes could be linked with what? brain functioning (i.e. reasoning) and verbal skills as well as empathy
Someone with low levels of seratonin may have structural and functional differences in what lobes of the brain? frontal and temporal
What type of person may have structural and functional deficits in the frontal and temporal lobes? someone with a personality disorder
Structural and Functional deficits in the frontal and temporal lobes could be linked with what? brain functioning (i.e. reasoning) and verbal skills as well as empathy
What type of person may have structural and functional deficits in the frontal and temporal lobes? someone with a personality disorder
What is Korsakoff's associated with? memory confusion that is more severe than what is found in alcoholism and is usually irreversible, ataxia, eye tracking symptoms and thus damage to eye muscle movement anterior retrograde amnesia
Warenekies Ensephalophophy is what? Acute stages of Korsakoff's
Korsakoff's affects what part of the brain? it affects your thalamus, frontal cortex, mammillary bodies, hippocampus (learning and memory, consolidation of memory)
What is ataxia? problems with movement we see some problems in your basil ganglia and your cerebellum
How can Dopamine be affected by all of the drugs? Can become sensitive to the cue and to the drug itself. When looking at a brain imaging study we can see that the person is reporting a craving, there is an effect in the system by the cue. The insisitivity will increase wanting and craving in the person.
When someone becomes insensitive to a drug what will increase? Wanting or Liking? Wanting Overtime the wanting increases and liking decreases. Some people take the drug to only satisfy the needs of the craving.
A son of an alcoholic are more sensitive to the ____ than those of son's without alcoholism. they are more sensitive to the euphoric effects. This could increase their dependency on the substance and they could also have an earlier onset of consumption. They also have a greater sensitivity to the intoxicating dose.
When someone has an intoxicating dose of a substance what happens to their heart rate? It increases
What does Kernberg's Object-Relations Theory say? That someone will like something because their friend's have picked that thing to like
When someone has a decrease in the amount of parental monitoring that they receive what happens to their use of substances? They have an increase in the substance use
What is alcohol metabolism? The is the way in which alcohol is broken down by the body and eliminated
Why might Asian's not drink as much as others? They may have lower alcohol metabolism and would not be able to break down alcohol as easily as others can.
What are genetic factors to alcohol metabolism? these are variations in the enzymes that break down the alcohol
What are environmental factors to alcohol metabolism? this is how much you consume and your nutrition
all drugs stimulate ______ (a neurotransmitter), no matter what drug it is they all stimulate dopamine system
when you increase your drug tolerance and sensation to the drug what happens you want more of the dug so that you can have the same effects
what are the neural structures involved in the brain's pleasure pathway? ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, frontal cortex
when you don't have the drug what happens to the dopamine levels in your brain? dopamine decreases dopamine is a major neurotransmitter in drug consumption
besides dopamine what other neurotransmitters are involved in drug consumption seratonin and enzymes
What is drug tolerance? you need more of the drug or you have a reduced effect if you continue to take the same amount
what can happen when you experience withdrawal? you can experience negative side effects from the reduction in use of the drug
What is craving? a strong desire or urge to use a specific substance, if this is high then you can have high rates of relapse
What can cause high rates of relapse? The person does not want to go into treatment and therefore the treatment doesn't work, When you have high craving then you can have high rates of relapse
Nuclus Accumbens is associated with what? drug use
When you use one drug on top of another drug then what is this called? poly substance use
Compared to using one drug, when you have poly substance use what happens to the effects of the drug use The combined effects of the one drug is typically less than the combined effects of the many drugs together
Why would a therapist not suggest moderate drinking for someone who has alcoholism? Because there are higher rates of relapse with moderate drinking than with quitting cold turkey
What does synergistic effect mean? the combined effects of more than one drug are greater than the effects of one drug alone
Why would cross tolerance be of importance in treatment? they can see what drugs the person is using and be able to determine the best course of action and be helpful in decreasing the effects of all the drugs
True or False: People with personaility disorders lack anxiety but not fear. False, people with personality disorders lack fear and anxiety
True or False: People with personality disorders have high levels of arousal, high resting heart rate, high skin conductance and normal EEG. False, people with personality disorders have low levels of arousal, low resting heart rate, low skin conductance, excessive slow-wave EEG.
True or False: people with personality disoreders have deficits in empathy. True
What is alcholol myopia? nearsightedness you can only focus on things that are directly affecting you, if things are going on around you then you are unable to focus on them, this is why it is hard to drive
What is expectancy effect? I expect it will make me one way but it doesn't necessarily make you that way what I expect the drug to do will depend on if I use the drug or not
There are two different paths of drinking: one is when there is one jump in the amout of usage (this occurs in high school), two different jumps in the use of alchohol (one in middle school and one in high school). Which one was girls? Girls had two different times when they increased their alcohol consumption.
There are two different paths of drinking: one is when there is one jump in the amout of usage (this occurs in high school), two different jumps in the use of alchohol (one in middle school and one in high school). Which one was girls? Boys had one time when they increased their amount of alcohol consumption.
What did they combine the substance abuse and substance dependence categories into? substance use disorder
Alcohol is a barbiturate and also a depressant
If you are taking a drug that acts in the same manner as another (i.e. alcohol) then what is it called when you develop for the substance that is like alcohol? Cross Tolerance
Why is it important for treatment if we know what other drugs someone is using? This can be useful so that we not only treat the many drugs that someone may be using but so we do not give them a drug that they could have tolerance to and thus we would not be as successful in the treatment of the drug.
These types of drugs create a feeling of energy and considered uppers, they make you feel awake. When the symptoms wear off then the person feels sick and has a loss of energy. Stimulants
______ and ______ have opposite drug use. The first is an upper and the other is a downer. Stimulants and Depressants
Types of Stimulants include: Cocaine Methamphetamines Amphetamines
Cocaine fits into what type of drug Stimulant
Methamphetamine fits into what type of drug Stimulant
Amphetamine fits into what type of drug Stimulant
These types of drugs produce euphoric effects, confusion and memory problems. They also produce more anxiety, higher heart rate, and poor reaction time Cannabinoids
Types of Cannabinoids include Marijuana Hashish
These types of drugs slow down the CNS, they are called downers because they cause a sense of relaxation Depressants
What are types of depressants? Barbiturates Benzodiazepines Alcohol
Barbiturates fits into what type of drug Depressant
Benzodiazepines fits into what type of drug Depressant
Which of the classes of drugs can cause life threatening withdrawal symptoms Anything in the depressant categories
This type of drugs can cause drowsiness, confusion, nausea, feelings of euphoria, respiratory complications and relieve pain Opioids and Seditives
What are the types of Opioids and Seditives? Codeine Heroin Morphine Opium Oxycodone HCL Hydrocodone bitartrate, acetaminophen
Heroin fits into what type of drug Opioids and Seditives
Morphine fits into what type of drug Opioids and Seditives
Oxycodone and Hydrocodone fit into what type of drug Opioids and Seditives
When taking this type of drug switching emotions is frequent. These change the mind and cure the appearance of things that are not really there. Effect the body's self control Hallucinogens
Types of Hallucinogens are LSD Cannabis
LSD fits into what type of drug Hallucinogens
Cannabis fits into what type of drug Hallucinogens
What is the alcohol pathway through the body? mough - stomach (very little absorbed here - small intestine - heart (to pump it through the body) - liver (where it is metabolized)
What is the area postrema? known also as the vomit center - when someone drinks too much sometimes alcohol can get in this area and this causes you to vomit - it is a defensive mechanism
How much alcohol is metabolized in your body per hour half an ounce
What does a MRI show between someone who is dependent on alcohol compared to someone who is not dependent on alcohol? they could have enlarged ventricles
What are the two types of anorexia? restricting type AND binge-eating/purging type
What criteria is going to be dropped from the DSM-5? Why? amenorrhea; because there is no medical basis for this, lots of people could suffer from this and not have an eating disorder and some people without an eating disorder could have this
What is the restricting type of anorexia? you limit the amount of food that you take in - you take in just enough to maintain life
What is the binge-eating/purging type of anorexia? the person binge eats and then purges - excessive weight loss the person could also exercise in large amounts
What is different between anorexia and bulimia? In anorexia you are trying to lose weight even if you are at normal weight. In bulimia you are trying to maintain your weight, your binges occur in secret and they are triggered by stress and negative emotions
What are the two types of bulimia? purging AND non-purging
How is bulimia similar to anorexia? thy both have fear of weight gain or they both have a negative body image. they both have fear of emotional effects
Why doesn't a person who binge lose weight? because purging only reduces calories by 50% the longer you wait to purge the more calories you ingest and consume
When someone is preoccupied with food what can happen? The person can develop an eating disorder
When teen girls dieted then what was their risk? They were more at risk for obesity ALSO dieting has preceded eating disorders
How does binge eating differ from bulimia? they do not purge they gain weight instead of lose it they have a loss over control of eating
What is the difference between someone who is obese with BED and someone who is obese without BED? people with BED are obsessed with body image people with obesity are not focused on their body image
What two disorders were moved to the feeding and eating disorders? Pica and Rumination
What is Pica persistent eating of non-nutritive, non-food substances over a period of at least 1 month
What is Rumination Disorder repeated regurgitation of food over a period of at least 1 month regurgitated food can be re-chewed, re-swallowed, or spit out
What is the most common eating disorder? EDNOS (eating disorder not otherwise specified)
Created by: astarkey18